Controlling the river during dam construction means providing one or more working areas free water and safe from river floods where the permanent works can be built in the dry.
Design and implementation of relevant works are critical operations of the whole construction programme, especially on medium or high discharge rivers or rivers subject to sudden and important floods.
River control works must form part of an overall project design, as the choice of the solution will have a major impact not only on the cost of the temporary works, but also on the design, construction programme and cost of the permanent works.
Operation of hydraulic structures of dams
Эксплуатация гидравлических структур плотин
Some hazards relating to dams are frequent subjects of discussion, while others, which nevertheless may cause serious accidents, are ignored in the literature. Such is the case of operation of hydraulic appurtenances of dams.
This bulletin deals more specifically with the following:
- Importance of outlet works for dams and features the operator requires
- Part of operating personnel
- Inspection and testing of hydraulic appurtenances
- Operation in flood seasons
- Latest trends in operating practices
Dams and the environment - Notes on regional influences
Плотины и окружающая среда - Примечания по региональным влияниям
It has been thought useful to record and distil the experiences of engineers involved with dam projects located in broadly defined climatic regions of world. The regions chosen have been designated as:
- Tropical, sub-tropical and arid
- Severe winter
As the regions themselves vary, so to a certain extent do the approaches of the sub-committees. The mini reports therefore perhaps reflect the wide diversity of the regions. None is intended as a definitive technical paper or even as a comprehensive aide memoire. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the relevant one will be useful reading for an engineer, or owner, contemplating involvement in a new dam or reservoir project is one of the regions. The benefit may be greater for someone moving from operations in one region, with which he is fully familiar, to another with its new challenge for environmental protection.
Filling materials for watertight cut off walls
Материалы, применяемые для создания водонепроницаемой преграды в плотинах
Because a dam is rarely founded on a perfectly watertight ground mass, there is nearly always underground water flow. The discharge of this seepage affects the profitability of the dam; its pressure and exit gradient can endanger the permanence of the structure itself. Numerous techniques have been employed to resolve these problems: impervious blankets, drains, waterproof curtains.
In this report, the authors concentrate on a more fundamental treatment of the subject which may be somewhat difficult for an average dam design engineer to understand; we try to minimize such difficulties by a reasonable explanation process and apologize in advance for any shortcomings in the description.
It deals with:
- Basic formulation and analysis procedures
- Earth dams – earthquake analysis and design
Static analysis of embankment dams
Статический анализ насыпных плотин
This report deals with problems of the analysis of embankment dams only. This includes both earth and rockfill dams with internal cores but excludes the problems of foundation analysis except in so far as the strength and deformation properties of foundation can be included in an analysis of the embankment.
The report intention is to outline the analytical techniques available and monitoring subsequent performance. The analytical sophistication now available, particularly from the finite element method, makes this a formidable task for the practitioner. The danger is that his judgment may be impaired rather than improved by the shear quantity of analysis which he can carry out. To further this purpose, the writers have omitted mathematical formulations from this report and have concentrated instead on applications.
Soil-cement for embankment dams
Почво-цемент для насыпных плотин
Soil-cement is a mixture of soil, Portland cement, and water. Through compaction and cement hydration, the mixture hardens with the soil particles bonding together to form a dense, durable, relatively impermeable, erosion resistant material.
This report considers the data relating to the use of compacted soil-cement on 136 dams or embankments constructed since 1962.
Geotextiles as filters and transitions in fill dams
The aims of the report are to review considerations for the use of geotextiles as filters in fill dams, to present relevant data gained from other uses, and to record data from dams where geotextile filters are known to have been installed.
Quality control for fill dams
Контроль качества для насыпных плотин
The first draft took inspiration from nuclear power plant quality control procedures, since construction of either a nuclear plant or dam project both require a high degree of safety. However, regulations pertaining to the nuclear industry differ in that the Contractor and Manufacturers of equipment have primary responsibility for quality control.
Materials for joints in concrete dams
Материалы для швов бетонных плотин
Joints are a necessary part of any large construction where dimensional changes within the structure are likely to occur. This is particularly true for concrete dams where as a result of the nature and behaviour of material of their construction, they may suffer cracking to a greater or lesser degree unless joints are provided to control these problems.
This bulletin deals with:
- Types of joints
- Selection of type and material
- Specifications for joint sealing materials
- Preparation and installation
- Practical test of waterstop
В бюллетене содержится описание и характеристики материалов для строительных швов бетонных плотин. Приведены также рекомендации по конструкции швов. Классификация швов, предлагаемая в бюллетене, и характеристики материалов представляют интерес для проектировщиков и строителей. Вместе с тем надо отметить, что все данные относятся к началу 80-х гг. При современных темпах развития науки и техники, особенно в области полимеров, можно ожидать появления новых эффективных материалов.
Spillways for dams State of the art
Водосбросные устройства для плотин. Современное положение дел
The basic design of spillways involves a variety of complex problems and, without pretending to be a comprehensive state-of-art review, this report does summarize the main considerations arising from modern dam projects.
Wherever possible, each chapter has examples of typical dams currently in operation throughout the world where sufficient information is available from the enquiry or other sources.
Dam safety - Guidelines
Безопасность плотин. Руководство
Several dam incidents with severe consequences during recent years had given rise to general concern about the safety of dams, and indicated the necessity for a formal safety approach.
The height of new dams and the volume of new reservoirs is increasing, while many older dams are approaching an age at which material deterioration and decreasing operational reliability may dictate some repair and upgrading.
An ever increasing number of dams is being built in countries with little or no tradition and experience in dam engineering. The formalization of safety considerations and the issuance of summarized safety requirement would be part of the necessary transfer of technological know-how to these countries.
Произошедшие в последние годы несколько аварий плотин с тяжелыми последствиями, привели к общей обеспокоенности о безопасности плотин, и указали на необходимость формального подхода к безопасности.
Высота новых дамб и объем новых резервуаров увеличивается, в то время как многие старые дамбы приближаются к такому возрасту, в котором материалы уже износились и, эксплуатационная надежность снизилась, что может потребовать проведения некоторого ремонта и модернизации.
Все большее количество плотин строится в странах с малым или вообще без опыта в плотиностроении. Формализация соображения безопасности и выдачи обобщенных требований безопасности, будет частью передачи необходимого технологического ноу-хау в этих странах
Dam monitoring - General considerations
Мониторинг плотин. Общие положения
One of this bulletin’s tasks was to bring bulletins n° 21 and 23 up to date and merge them into a single ICOLD bulletin. The whole committee agreed that:
- The underlying principles and basic philosophy were clearly and cogently stated in these earlier bulletins and provided a good foundation for those needing to involve themselves in dam monitoring
- Some details needed revision (only minor points, considering they were first published twenty years ago)
- The sections on optical survey methods could be cut down, both bulletins giving them much space with overabundant details. Topographic survey is now losing favour for dam monitoring purposes and it would seem sufficient simply to remind readers of a few basic ideas and refer to the abundant literature on the subject.
В бюллетене подробно рассмотрены наблюдения за бетонными и грунтовыми плотинами. Описаны наблюдения начиная со строительства и первого наполнения водохранилища в период эксплуатации. Приводятся рекомендации по проектированию измерений, по выбору приборов и инструментов, по обработке результатов измерений как в бетонных, так и в грунтовых плотинах. Упомянуты также геодезические методы контроля за подвижками сооружений. В бюллетене не уделено внимание двум вопросам: во-первых, установлению предельных величин деформаций или напряжений, при которых еще не возникает опасности для сооружения, и во-вторых, авторизации мониторинга.
Dam design criteria - Philosophy of choice. The philosophy of their selection
Критерии проектирования плотин- Философия выбора.
The initial approach was to conduct a survey of member countries of ICOLD and to ascertain the currently available practice. This report attempts to present our findings and is the result of much debate and controversy.
Attempts of including quantitative stochastic and probabilistic reliability approaches were made but the available data did not seem to warrant such an approach.
Inspection of dams following earthquake - guidelines
Осмотр плотины после землетрясения. Руководящие принципы
An earthquake may cause failure of a dam or cause severe damage to the dam and its appurtenant structures. In the event of damage, immediate action may be necessary to prevent further weakening of the structure. Accordingly, all dam operators should be carefully instructed in the procedures to be followed if an earthquake should occur that produces motions of intensity sufficient to possibly cause damage.
The inspections are most meaningful if the procedures are prepared for individual dams. The general procedures described herein may be used by professional persons conversant with the design and operation of the dam in the preparation of a set of inspection procedures for a specific dam. The procedures should list all of the features to be inspected, in an order believed to be the most important and efficient. Communication checkpoints to designed offices regarding the inspection should be a part of the plan. Aspects of the inspections are discussed below, and inspection checklists are given in the appendix to aid in preparing instructions.
Бюллетень освещает требования, предъявляемые к незамедлительному осмотру плотин после происшедшего землетрясения, более тщательному последующему осмотру с выявлением возможных видов и причин повреждений. Внимание акцентируется на особенностях осмотров различного вида плотин - земляных, бетонных, из каменной кладки, примыканий плотин, вспомогательным сооружениям и водохранилищу.
ROUGH. Inspection of dams following earthquake - guidelines
New construction methods - State of the art
Новые методы строительства. Обзор
The objective of this report is not to carry a general review of all «New Construction Methods», but to select construction techniques which could be included in the category of new construction methods and to study the essential points of these techniques based on actual cases.
In recent years the progress of technology has become more rapid and diverse, but , in simplest terms, it can be recognized that the influence of modern technology in dam construction lies in the rationalization of the use of new construction equipment, computers, synthetic materials, etc.
Dam heightening is a major task in dam engineering. Several reasons may make it necessary: increased freeboard, spillway capacity, reservoir volume, etc. In every case the engineer must consider different kinds of problems.
Dams and environment - Cases histories
Плотины и окружающая среда. Исторические случаи
This bulletin presents a number of case histories. They are dams and reservoirs generally of a significant age. Thus a realistic picture is now available of the performance of each scheme related both to achievement of the main project purpose and to the various environmental impacts involved. It is intended that the reader should be able, through these descriptions, to assess the overall impact of each project in its totality on the communities and countries involved.
Dams and environment - The Zuiderzee damming
Плотины и окружающая среда. Проект Зойдерзейе
The present bulletin describes in considerable detail the experience with the Zuiderzee project in the Netherland on which there has been much effort on the environmental front, with many lessons learned.
Настоящий бюллетень достаточно подробно описывает опыт проекта Зoйдерзейе в Нидерландах, в который было вложено много усилий, связанных с экологией и извлечено много уроков. Бюллетень нацелен на то, чтобы читатель смог оценить общее воздействие проекта в целом на заинтересованные сообщества. Данный бюллетень также содержит информацию, касающуюся редкого направления в строительстве: польдеров и их сооружения.
Sedimentation control of reservoirs - Guidelines
Контроль за заилением водохранилищ. Руководство
The terms of Reference of the Committee were as follow:
- Methods of predicting alluvial deposits as regards quality and quantity.
- Observation methods and comparison with redictions.
- Means of protection to extend the life of reservoirs: intake and scouring structures, operation of reservoirs, dredging, sediment trapping.
Monitoring of dams and their foundations - State of the art
Мониторинг плотин и их оснований. Современное положение дел
The member countries of the Committee were asked to submit state-of-the-art reports on dam and foundation monitoring in their own countries, and ten reports were finally forthcoming. Canada, not a member of the Committee, also furnished a report.
Understandably, each contribution has highlighted those activities that are considered to be either the most important in the country or technically the most advanced. From the different situations, the reader may therefore choose the one that best meets his own situations, the reader may therefore choose the one that best meets his own situation and draw useful guidance from it, knowing that what is described represents actual situations developed by technical experts in this field.
Moraine as embankment and foundation material - State of the art
Морена, как материал основания и тела плотины
If sufficiently impervious, moraine is a good foundation material with few settlement problems; it can also provide satisfactory constructional material for dam cores and homogeneous earth dams.
The bulletin describes and discusses moraine properties, in situ exploration problems, design, construction and performance during first filling and long-term operation. It is a comprehensive review of current knowledge and experience of moraine as a dam foundation and fill material. Case histories from various countries illustrate the ways it can be used.