Перечень бюллетеней Международной комиссии по большим плотинам (сигб)

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Rockfill dams with concrete facing - State of the art

Каменно-набросные плотины с бетонной облицовкой

The bulletin describes design, construction and monitoring practice with practical recommendations on construction of the dam body, concrete facing and ancillary works, and foundation treatment. A full chapter is devoted to earthquake design.
Clear illustrations, references and list of existing dams are included.




Exposure of dam concrete to special aggressive waters - Guidelines

Воздействие на бетон плотин агрессивных вод - Методические рекомендации

This bulletin reviews the extent to which environmental attack on dam concrete has taken place together with the nature of such attacks. It reviews what preventive measures are available against such attacks together with investigative techniques and remedial actions available once attack has occurred.




Selecting seismic parameters for large dams - Guidelines

Выбор сейсмических параметров для больших плотин - Методические рекомендации

This bulletin was made:
1.To provide a guide for the selection of parameters to be used in the seismic design, analysis and safety evaluation of new or existing dams and their appurtenant structures.
2.To promote consistency in handling the earthquake aspects of dam performance evaluation among owners, designers and various organizations involved in the planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance and regulation of dams.




Savings in dam construction - Comments and proposals

Снижение стоимости строительства плотин. Комментарии и предложения

This bulletin reviews the opportunities for cost savings arising from appropriate dam design and construction factor.
No two dams are the same, and it is difficult to compare their cost and assess potential savings, which are often under-estimated; many dam engineers feel that they are close to the optimum. Judgements on this bulletin may thus be diverse, but it is hoped that all readers will find a few ideas towards a more cost-conscious approach, and may be stimulated to consider what may be done in the future.
Every party involved in the design and construction of a dam usually considers that needless costs are the fault of the others, but major savings are often possible in all areas, either through the direct action of each party or through a clearer definition of contract relationship, duties and powers.

В данном бюллетене изучены возможности снижения стоимости за счет рационализации проектирования и строительства плотин. Также подробно описаны способы рационализации. Бюллетень нацелен на то, чтобы ознакомить читателя с информацией и заинтересовать в дальнейшем изучении данного вопроса.



Tailings dams safety – Guidelines

Безопасность хвостохранилищ - Методические рекомендации

This guideline is essential because of the increasing numbers of large tailings dams that were being constructed around the world and the severe consequences that would result from failure. The need for such guidelines was dramatically emphasized by the failure, in 1985, near Stava in Italy, of two small tailings dams which resulted in a large loss of life and extensive property damage.
This bulletin is intended primarily for the use of the Regulatory Agencies responsible for the safety of tailings dams, both structurally and environmentally. However, it is also intended to assist the mine operator in understanding the measures that must be adopted to ensure that his tailings dam is safe, both during operation and after rehabilitation. Finally, it should also benefit those individuals or organizations involved in the design, construction, operation, and rehabilitation of tailings dams.




Roller compacted concrete for gravity dams - State of the art

Уплотненный катком бетон для гравитационных плотин

Roller compacted concrete is a new technique characterized principally by its use of rollers for compaction. The resulting material is denser with a lower percentage of water than the usual dam concrete. The mix is spread in thin layers over the whole length of the dam, enabling concreting to proceed very quickly
This bulletin summarizes the information now available for a technique still in the evolutionary phase. It would therefore be wrong to attempt to force it into rigid schemes of prearranged recommendations.
It deals with roller compacted concrete for dams of the gravity type only.




Conventional methods in construction - Review

Традиционные методы в строительстве - Обзор





Dispersive soils in embankment dams – Review

Дисперсинные почвы в грунтовых (насыпных) плотинах

Dispersive clays are generally poorly understood by engineers and other specialists who work on embankment dam construction. These clays may cause serious problems if they are used without adequate knowledge, and if the precautions required are not taken. It is important that dam engineers and specialists learn about the properties of these clays, especially those that require special attention during the design and construction of embankment dams.
This bulletin reviews these properties and appropriate measures to be taken, and gives valuable information for all engineers concerned with this material present in many countries.




Watertight geomenbranes for dams - State of the art

Использование водоудерживающих геомембран в плотинах - Сегодняшнее состояние

Since that time, new and improved materials became available and the experience gained has resulted in a better understanding of their use and in advanced engineering skills in this field so that they have been used in higher dams than before.
The application of geomembranes was extended to new areas such as enhancing the water-retaining performance of other facings, repairing old gravity dams and the deteriorated upstream concrete facings of fill dams. Lastly, new ideas have been developed regarding drainage, supporting layer and protective covering and geomembranes are being considered for the upstream facings to roller compacted concrete dams.




Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete dams - Review and recommendations

Щелочно-содержащии реакции в бетонных плотинах - Обзор и рекомендации

Interest in the Alkali-Aggregate (AAR) in concrete structures has increased in recent times because of the risk for dam safety and the high cost of repairs and replacements. Though this reaction does not concern dam concrete only, one of the first structures identified as affected by AAR was the Parker Dam (USA) in 1941 and an ICOLD survey in 1985 has shown the worldwide distribution of damaged dams because of AAR
The purpose of this Bulletin is to make aware those responsible for dam safety of the AAR risk and to give recommendations for minimizing this risk at the design and construction stages and adequately treating old dams which may be affected.




Dam construction sites . Accident prevention - Review and recommendations

Строительство плотин. Предотвращение инцидентов - Обзор и рекомендации

Many efforts all over the world to emphasize labour safety and health have resulted in more awareness from public opinion in occupational accidents and disease. So that it is timely to deal with these problems for dam construction sites where they are especially major issues since statistics show that risks of death are far higher during construction from occupational accidents than in operation from dam failures;
The report starts with an evaluation of accident-related losses and goes on with suggestions on methods and procedures to prevent them. It addresses more especially the Engineer, site management and contractors and all those responsible for work organization on dam construction sites.




Spillways. Shockwaves and air entrainment - Review and recommendations

Водосбросы. Методы гашения энергии и аэрация потока

Spillways and bottom outlets constitute a significant percent of the total cost of major dams. Their proper design is, thus, very important from the standpoint of economy as well as safety. This bulletin, which considers the hydraulic concepts of design for high-velocity flow, aeration, cavitation and shock waves, has been prepared as a general design guideline for use of engineers engaged in the design of bottom outlets and steep spillway chutes.




Selection of design flood- Current methods

Выбор расчетного паводка. Современные методы

The problem of the evaluation of the design flood has been passionately debated for years: the subject is one of important and fraught with difficulty. Many failures are due to insufficient spillway capacity. Also the diversity and complexity of factors governing flood formation and size have resulted in a variety of evaluation method.
Many of these methods are reviewed in this bulletin and, what is rather new, The limits of their applicability are discussed. The bulletin is addressed more specifically t hydrologists and engineers ultimately responsible for the calculation of project design floods.

В Бюллетене приводятся примеры разрушения земляных и каменно-земляных плотин, рассматриваются причины этих разрушений и даются некоторые общие рекомендации. В Бюллетене приводится интересная фактическая информация о причинах разрушений ряла плотин и информирует о применяемых в Западных странах методиках по расчету пиковых паводковых расходах.



Cost impact on future dam design - Analysis and proposals

Эволюция стоимости при строительстве плотин в будущем - Анализ и прогноз

This bulletin reviews possible changes in dam construction needed to optimize construction cost. It aims at questioning conventional wisdom and at stimulating enquiry into alternatives rather than introducing new rules or ready-made solutions for any situation.
Implementation of innovations in technology depends on reflection and cooperation between several parties. In dam engineering, these include owners, regulatory agencies, consulting engineers and contractors.




Bituminous cores for fill dams - State of the art

Битумные ядра для насыпных плотин. Обзор

This bulletin gives an overview of geophysical problems which may arise before, during or after the construction of a large dam. Among its sources it draws on a number of reports. The relevant reports and other listed references may be accessed for specific instances of problems and solutions, as the text of the bulletin is general in nature.

Бюллетень отражает состояние вопроса на конец 1995 года. Однако, учитывая, что в практике строительства гидротехнических сооруженйи в РФ создание напорных сооружений с битумными ядрами в качестве противофильрационного материала до настоящего времени не нашло широкого применения, представленных материал будет интересен специалистам-гидроэнергетикам.



Owners, consultants and contractors - How to improve relationships

Владельцы, консультанты и подрядчики. Как улучшить взаимоотношения

Heavy construction projects such as dam construction many times have delays and increased costs which can be directly attributed to the relationship between the various parties, i.e., the owner, consultant/designer, construction manager and contractor.
This bulletin reviews each party’s responsibilities and provides beneficial ideas on contract documents, contracting considerations, and problem avoidance and resolution, all in an effort to reduce the overall project cost and time. It addresses all the parties involved in dam projects and is intended for a very large readership.

Данный бюллетень освещает ответственности каждой из сторон, заключивших сделку. Бюллетень также содержит некоторые идеи, касающиеся тех или иных документов, необходимых для оформления сделки. Здесь приводятся рекомендации, которые могут сократить не только общую стоимость того или иного проекта, но и затраты времени на его осуществление. Бюллетень предназначен для всех сторон, участвующих в проектах строительства плотин, а также для широкого круга читателей.



Dams and environment -Socio-economic impacts

Плотины и окружающая среда. Социо-экономический аспект

The present bulletin gives an overview of social and economic problems which may arise before, during or after the construction of a large dam. The relevant reports are listed in the references at the end of the bulletin and may be accessed for specific instances of problems and solutions, as the text of the bulletin is general in nature.

Настоящий бюллетень представляет собой краткий обзор социально-экономических проблем, которые могут возникнуть до строительства, а также в период строительства или после сооружения большой плотины. Цель данной работы - сфокусировать внимание на социально-экономических воздействиях, которые типичны в контексте развивающейся экономики. Также в бюллетене приводится описание основных положений для оценки и управления социально-экономическими воздействиями.



Improvement of existing dam monitoring - Recommendations and case histories

Улучшение системы мониторинга существующих плотин. Рекоммендации и примеры

This bulletin provides recommendations for the improvement of the monitoring of existing dams where either a monitoring system does not exist, or it is wholly or partially obsolete, incomplete or insufficient.
Even though the basic principles remain the same, improving existing dam monitoring is a somewhat different problem from monitoring new dams, because specific problems such as logistic difficulties can arise and information on the actual past behaviour of the dam is available.

Бюллетень отражает состояние вопроса на конец 1991 год. Однако, учитывая, "системность" в изложении материала, многочисленные примеры и рекомендации по совершенствованию системы мониторинга существующих плотин, представляет интерес. тем более важно, что многие россйские гидротехнические сооружения построены много лет назад и требуется реконструкция системы мониторинга, принятой на этих сооружениях.



Rock foundations for dams

Скальные основания для плотин

Significant progress has been made over the last twenty years in this field, and it has become necessary to include for these new developments in rock mechanics and discuss a few typical applications.
The subject is vast and many of the problems associated cannot yet be given a definitive answer, since there are many parameters whose values are scattered and constitutive laws for in situ rock are complex. But engineers now have the benefit of science and technology offering them a truer insight Into the physical and mechanical properties of in situ rock, and enabling them to better predict its performance as a dam foundation and treat it accordingly, and monitor it more comprehensively and accurately. The end result is greater safety for the dam/foundation complex.




Reinforced rockfill and reinforced fill for dams - State of the art

Усиление набросных плотин проливом наброски водой и заполнение густой водой в насыпных плотинах

This bulletin deals with a technique, which, although not new and of such great interest, has not been extensively used in dam construction: the reinforcement of fill materials.
The bulletin describes the methods used to reinforce the natural materials of a fill dam, which have to be resistant to various conditions, but especially to overtopping. Principles are the same for fine or coarse materials, but the ways they are reinforces and react may be very different.




Dams and Environment - Geophysical impacts

Плотины и окружающая среда - Геофизические факторы

This bulletin gives an overview of geophysical problems which may arise before, during or after the construction of a large dam. Among its sources it draws on a number of reports. The relevant reports and other listed references may be accessed for specific instances of problems and solutions, as the text of the bulletin is general in nature.




Embankment dams. Upstream slope protection - Review and recommendations

Насыпные плотины. Защита верхового откоса - Обзор и рекомендации

This bulletin is a comprehensive review of the various methods used to protect the upstream slope of fill dams, with abundant examples of applications. The description is more complete in the case of materials used more frequently so reflecting the day-to-day reality. Embankment dams represent 70% of all dams now under construction, which amply reflects the importance of this bulletin.
The content should be of the greatest interest for all dam designers, contractors and owners.




Rock materials for rockfill dams - Review and recommendations

Скальные материалы для каменно-набросных плотин - Обзор и рекомендации

This bulletin reviews the physico-mechanical properties of rockfill, specifications requirements, dam design, construction methods, settlement and deformation prediction, and performance monitoring.
This bulletin is addressed to all those involved in research on, assessment of properties, and use of rock materials for construction of rockfill dams.

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