This bulletin contributes to a better understanding of the major ageing phenomena, to indicate appropriate methods for their detection, investigation and evaluation, and to suggest simple remedial measures. The aim is to improve the prevention, control and mitigation of ageing.
The dams used as illustrations for the various ageing phenomena were selected because the documentation of the problems was thorough and the data available were particularly relevant, or because the contributing author’s familiarity with the dams.
Computer software for dams – Validation. Comments and proposals
Программное обеспечение для плотин - Легализация
The description of computational methods, or state-of-the-art review, would only be of temporary value, given the fast pace of new developments. On the contrary, ideas and criteria for effective « validation » of computational tools were deemed to be of more permanent value, while at the same time covering important aspects, although of primary importance, are far from obvious or simple, and moreover they are frequently given insufficient critical attention.
Embankment dams - Granular filters and drains. Review and recommendations
Насыпные плотины. Гранулированые фильтры и дренаж. Обзор и рекомендации
The importance of filters and drains within the body of an earth, earth-rock, or rockfill dams must be uppermost in the mind of the embankment dam designer. Indeed, many incidents of failure or near failure can be attributed to the absence of filters and/or drains or to filter/drain protection which was not appropriate to the application. The literature within the various ICOLD Congress proceedings and other sources provides ample case histories of such incidents. Depending on the data cited, 30 to 50 percent of accidents to embankment dams have involved piping or inadequate drainage: the safety of embankment dams depends to a large degree on the proper design and construction of filter and filter/drain systems.
This bulletin is not meant to be a design manual but rather a summary of the current state of the practice.
Dams and environment - Water quality and climate
Плотины и окружающая среда. Качество воды и климат
This Bulletin gives an overview of effects of reservoirs on water quality and climate. Among its sources it draws on a number of reports submitted to the 16th ICOLD Congress in San Francisco, in 1988, in response to Question 60: Reservoirs and the Environment-Experience in management and monitoring, and to further such reports submitted to the 17th ICOLD Congress in Vienna, 199, in response to Question 64: Environmental Issues in Dam Projects. The relevant reports and other listed references may be accessed for specific instances of problems and solutions, as the text of the Bulletin is general in nature.
Настоящий бюллетень представляет обзор воздействий, которые оказывают водохранилища на качество воды и климат, которые оказывают водохранилища на качество воды и климат. Среди источников обзора материалы, представленные на 16 конгресс Международной Комиссии по большим плотинам, проходившем в 1988 году в Сан-Франциско.
Tailings Dams - Design of drainage
Плотины хвостохранилищ - Проектирование дренажа
This bulletin comments various recommended drainage methods for tailings dams.
The research and studies made on tailings dams behaviour led to design improved method of drainage for these dams. So successful have these methods been that even dams built upstream construction need no longer be regarded as a type that traditionally has a low factor of safety.
This new approach to starter dam avoids the formation during early deposit of tailings of a zone of low strength slimes, normally found just upstream of that dam and greatly improves stability of a potential slip surface passing through the toe of tailings dam as it approaches full height.
Tailings Dams and Seismicity - Review and Recommendations
Плотины хвостохранилищ и сейсмика - Обзор и рекомендации
A recent USCOLD compilation of tailings dam incidents has listed 185 incidents collected worldwide, covering tailings from a wide variety of materials. This has shown that tailings dams are very susceptible to earthquake damage and those built by the upstream method have failed mainly due to slope instability and earthquake.
There is clearly a need for advice on seismic design for tailings dams and this bulletin has been prepared to show the current state-of-the-art for the design of new dams to resist earthquake forces. Of equal importance is the question of treating existing dams to make them better able to withstand earthquake shaking and this bulletin gives remedial measures for improving the safety of existing impoundments. It also gives a very comprehensive collection of references so that the reader can go back to original sources and study various methods in greater detail.
Dam Failures - Statistical Analysis
Статистический анализ повреждений в плотинах
Accidents in industry have always been a spur to human progress and, for many years, was even the main driving force. This is especially true in dam engineering and, for this reason, ICOLD has on three occasions instigated worldwide surveys, to collect the largest amount of information on dam accidents and/or incidents. The nineteen-seventies saw the appearance of Lessons from Dams Accidents, the eighties produced Deterioration of Dams and reservoirs, and now we have Statistical Analysis of Dam Failures.
This third effort strives to avoid duplications with earlier work, but to find responses to questions than have hitherto found no objective answer: are some dam types, or some dam heights, more prone to failure than others?
Данный бюллетень является работой Международной комиссии по большим плотинам, которая в течение многих лет пыталась систематизировать случавшиеся аварии, поставив из в зависимость от самых разных признаков. В бюллетене содержится подробная классификация аварий плотин по разным причинам. Имеются рекомендации по мерам предосторожности. Данные бюллетеня позволяют нацелить внимание эксплуатационного персонала на наиболее уязвимые позиции.
Dam and environment - Ridracoli : A model achievement
Плотины и окружающая среда
This bulletin offers technical information on, and examples of impacts, and engineers’ and scientists’ suggest means for mitigating them. It describes concrete cases of projects designed and build with a view to make the dam and reservoir blend into their environment.
This bulletin continues this collection of case histories in which the combined effort of engineers, politicians and the public at large have made it possible to develop a natural resource –water- to meet a basic need, while at the same time stimulating the area’s economic and social development, and protecting and improving the natural and man-made environment.
Tailings Dams. Transport. Placement. Decantation - Review and recommendations
Хвостохранилища. Транспортировка, укладка, декантирование - Обзор и рекомендации
Vibrations of Hydraulic Equipment for dams - Review and Recommendations
Вибрация гидрооборудования плотин. Обзор и рекоммендации
Few problems are more difficult to cope with than vibrations of hydraulic equipment. Because of the danger they impose to hydraulic equipment and the associated structures, vibrations have been the subject of extensive research for many decades and research has accelerated in recent times with the result that much more is now know about the occurrence and characteristics of dangerous vibrations. This bulletin attempts to provide the designer with understanding as well as tools that will aid in developing safe designs.
Бюллетень составлен в виде учебного пособия по вибрации по схеме: Введение в вибрацию; пассивные составляющие жидкости: жесткость, масса и гашение; динамическое возбуждение потока и причины резонанса жидкости; вибрация сороудерживающих решеток; примеры вибрационных проблем; использование масштабных моделей и вычислительных методов; руководящие принципы проектирования по предоствращению и снижению проблем вибрации.
Tailings Dams and Environment - Review and Recommendations
Хвостохранилища и окружающая среда - Обзор и рекомендации
This bulletin addresses this aspect in relation to tailings dams and their retained lagoons. It considers the environmental impact assessment that must be made at the planning stage and environmental stability to be achieved during the long years of construction and the longer period after completion and rehabilitation.
Monitoring of Tailings Dams - Review and Recommendations
Мониторинг плотин хвостохранилищ - Обзор и рекомендации
This bulletin concentrates on the difference of approach necessary when considering the instrumentation for tailing dams. Sound advice is given about the importance of seepage measurements and the need for automation to provide continuous records, methods for measuring the position of the phreatic surface, showing the difference of approach from that with embankment dams in this, for tailing dams, vital measurement.
Dams and related structures in cold climate - Design guidelines and case studies
In areas with cold climate, formation of ice and permafrost may cause damage or operational problems to dams, related structures or equipment. These problems must be considered during planning, design, construction and operation of hydraulic projects in cold climate. The purpose of this bulletin is to review these problems and to present preventive or remedial measures against ice and permafrost action.
A guide to Tailings Dams and impoundments - Design, construction, use and rehabilitation
Руководство по плотинам хвостохранилищ и водохранилищам - Проектирование, строительство, эксплуатация и модернизация
This bulletin discusses common problems in the disposal of tailings at mines, quarries and other industries, and identifies safe methods of designing and operating dams and impoundments.
The problems encountered at the end of operations when it becomes desirable to end tailings dam construction and it is necessary to rehabilitate the dam and its impoundment to make it permanently safe and environmentally acceptable are discussed and a final chapter describes some of the governmental regulations controlling tailings dams in some countries.
Concrete dams - Control and treatment of cracks.
Бетонные плотины. Контроль и лечение трещин.
This bulletin addresses the causes and control of cracking in concrete, techniques for monitoring such cracks, and actions available for accommodating and repairing cracks. Guidance also is provided on how to avoid cracking in concrete dams. A series of case histories from around the world on the care and rehabilitation of dams affected by serious cracking is also included.
Трещины в бетонных плотинах были, есть и будут всегда! Главное - это контроль за их развитием и своевременное принятие мер для обеспечения безопасной экслуатации плотины. Разделы Бюллетеня подготовлены разными национальными комитетами СИГБ, что позволило учесть накопленный в различных странах опвт по борьбе с трещинообразованием. Основной вывод Бюллетеня: трещины могут быть как губительными для эксплуатации сооружения, так и не оказывающими какого-либо значительного влияния на жизнь плотины. Однако, в любом случае они требуют к себе пристального внимания и проведения постоянного и тщательного мониторинга. в Бюллетене приведена классификация трещин, обращено внимание на необходимость серьезного подхода к самому факту образования трещин и их лечению. Приводится опыт борьбы с трещинами на протяжении практически 100 лет. Преведены данные по проведению ремонтных работ.
Cost of flood control in dams - Review and recommendations
Стоимость контроля паводка на плотинах - Обзор и рекомендации
Larger floods now considered lessons from operation and failures since 30 years, wider range of possible solutions have a great impact on design of new spillways: the Bulletin is proposing relevant cost effective dispositions to guarantee safety of new dams and improve safety of existing dams; methods for river control during construction are also reviewed.
Dam Break flood analysis - Review and recommendations
Разрушение плотин паводками. Обзор и рекоммендации
Concern about the possible failure of dams, with a flood wave routing in the valley, peaked in this century as a result of failures of several important dams such as Vajont, Malpasset, Teton and Macchu II.
The Bulletin reviews parameters and define the state of art of predicting downstream depths, extent of flooding, and velocities which would occur as a result of a failed dam and to catalog and to make recommendations for the use of such programs.
A unique review for all those involved in the assessment of dam safety and the protection of population downstream of dams.
В Бюллетене приводится много примеров разрушения плотин в лабораторных условиях, что позволяет с определенной степенью точности представить характер возможных разрушений плотин различного типа в естественных условиях. Приводится статистика разрушения плотин с разбывкой по годам, по высоте и типам разрушенных плотин с анализом основных причин, приводящих к их разрушению.
Neotectonic and dams - Recommendations and case histories
Неотектоника и плотины - Рекомендации и случаи по теме
Exposure of dams to active tectonic phenomena constitutes a severe hazard which might affect the structural safety of dams.
The Bulletin deals specifically with:
- Rupturing and creeping tectonic events which might affect dams and storages.
- The related investigation methodology.
- Evaluating the effects of fault breaks and crustal mobility on dams.
- Effects of active tectonic features on selection of sites and types of dams.
- Defining the engineering strategy, when facing the active tectonic rupturing and creeping movements.
This Bulletin is recommended to all those involved in the design, construction and operation of dams
Seismic observation of dams-Guidelines and case studies
Обзор воздействия сейсмичности на плотины
The Bulletin deals with the basic aspects of seismic observation of dams, and gives criteria and recommendations for the design, installation, operation and maintenance of monitoring systems, including the processing and utilisation of the obtained records. It is supported by presentation of forced vibration tests performed on dams and by representative case studies.
This Bulletin will be of particular interest to all dam engineers and all those involved in dam safety.
Embankment dams with bituminous concrete facing. Review and recommendations
Грунтовые плотины с битумно-бетонной облицовкой откосов
This Bulletin is a revised and unified edition of Bulletins 32 and 39. It introduces the present state of the art in the field of bituminous concrete facings and their interface with other elements of the dam.
It includes a review of the design principles and typical solutions used, a description of the construction materials, the construction methods and quality control, and finally discussions and descriptions of performance, inspection and maintenance for long term operation.
Dealing with reservoir sedimentaiton. Guidelines and case studies
Распеделение твердых осадков в водохранилищах
As the dams in operation throughout the world age, their reservoirs accumulate sediment deposits to some degree; with that aging, these sediment deposits become more and more of a problem towards meeting the intended purposes of those dams. Therefore, it behooves the owners and engineers of these projects to become more innovative in preventing and resolving these sedimentation related problems.
Aspects of sediment yield determination have been adequately dealt with in Bulletin 67 (1989) and are therefore not repeated in the new Bulletin.
Dams and fishes - Review and recommendations
Плотины и рыба. Обзор и рекоммендации
The maintenance and development of fishlife are important aspects to be considered by dam builders. In this area, the aim of the dam builder should be threefold:
- Conserve the diversity of living species,
- Enable riverside populations to fish for food,
- Provide for the development of water-based recreational activities.
Three areas are examined in the bulletin:
- The reservoir : conditions necessary for fishlife (food and reproduction),
- The dam: fish pass techniques,
- The river downstream of the dam: flow conditions required to maintain fishlife.
This Bulletin will be an important source of information for all those involved in the design, construction and operation of dams. However, it is restricted to river dams and does not include those in estuaries.