A 'General Approach to Dam Surveillance' is presented here, for owners, managers and other non specialists.
Dam Surveillance is a basic element in Dam Safety processes within the current legal frameworks. It covers a series of complementary and redundant activities, made of visual inspections, dam documentation management, monitoring, equipment checking and testing, and assessment of dam condition and behaviour.
Improving tailings dam safety - Critical aspects of management, design, operation and closure.
Усиление безопасности плотин хвостохранилищ - Критические аспекты управления, проектирования эксплуатации и закрытия
In considering the critical aspects required to improve tailings dam safety, the following subjects are addressed in this Bulletin:
- Corporate and Management Commitment
- Education and training of company staff
- Critical aspects relating to the design of a tailings dam
- Critical aspects to be considered when designing for and implementing the final closure of a tailings dam
- Risk management
- The essential need for regular external audits
- Some notes on the positive role that is played by industry regulators.
The conclusion reached in the document is that diligent attention to these critical aspects will result in improved awareness and a lowering of safety incidences for tailings dams.
Sediment transport and deposition in reservoirs
Перемещение и удаление осадков в водохранилищах
As reservoir sedimentation has proven, to be a serious problem in South Africa, research in this field has been ongoing for more than 70 years. This publication emanates from extensive research which has been over the past 30 years. A great deal of information has fortunately also been obtained from China which has the most extensive experience in this field.
Given the universal nature of hydraulic formulae, Chinese and South African data generally conform to the same mathematical relationship. This indicates that these relationships should be applicable in other countries as well.
This guideline on mathematical modeling can be used during the planning and design of new dams, and management of existing dams.
Concrete Rockfill Dams - Concepts for design and construction
Каменно-земляные плотины с бетонным экраном. Концепция проектирования и сооружения
В Бюллетене освещена практика проектирования и строительства этого типа плотин, которых в мире построено более 150, в том числе ряд плотин достигает высоты более 200 м. в российской практике этот вид плотин не нашел распространения. В этой связи практические рекомендации, приведенные в Бюллетене, представляют интерес. В Бюллетене уделено внимание экономическому обоснованию оптимальной толщины бетонных плит, подбору обратных фильтров и пр. Приведена большая статистика по строительству и эксплуатации плотин указанного типа.
Concrete face Rockfill Dams - Concepts for design and construction.
The adequate management of flood is of fundamental importance for dam safety and for the security.
Subjects explored in this bulletin are:
- The severe direct and indirect consequences of potential dam failure on human life, environment and economy
- Planned implementation of dam projects including new projects; the need for the rehabilitation and up rating of ageing dams; the need to cope with increasingly difficult conditions and constraints for the implementation of dams
- The intense implementation of small dams with limited use of engineering resources, resulting in increased risks, as evidence by the statistics of failures.
- The relevant role of hydrological/hydraulic safety, namely its dependence on uncertainties, limitation of available information and limited predictability of intervening phenomena.
- The specific characteristics of hydrological/hydraulic safety, namely its dependence on uncertainties, limitation of available information
Доклад посвящен одной из важнейших проблем гидротехники - безопасному пропуску экстремальных паводков. В нем затрагивается широкий круг проблем, возникающих при пропуске паводков: оценка уровня достоверности расчетного паводка, стратегии проектирования водосбросов, уязвимость плотин к переливу через гребень и т.д. Достаточно четко изложена концептуальная основа безопасного пропуска паводка в период строительства и эксплуатации ГТС, приводится оценка уровня достоверности подсчета величины расчетного паводка, дается оценка возможных неопределенностей. Уделяется внимание вопросу изменения климатический условий и воздейстие этого фактора на водные системы и, как следствие, на частоту и величину паводковых расходов.
ROUGH. Historical review on ancient Dams
Проект. Исторический обзор с инцидентами на плотинах
This bulletin treats about ancient dams constructed by the Man, the first one about 5 000 years ago. As varied as their origins, were the structural characteristics of ancient dams, for which no regional preference are discernible. They had one aspect in common however, to resist the water pressure only the weight of the construction material was used, but not it strength itself.
Various countries contributed to the bulletin of the small dams ICOLD committee, in which it is possible to follow up the construction of several ancient dams in different places and time along the world.
Cost savings in Dams
Экономия средств при строительстве плотин
The present Bulletin reviews Bulletins 73 and 83, using lessons from Question 84 and also takes into account the six other specific bulletins on Cost Savings. It applies to various dams apart from tailing dams where the problems and solutions are very different.
This present bulletin is devoted to:
- Identifying and mitigating existing non technical factors detrimental to cost savings
- Technical opportunities for innovation and cost savings in the design of both high and low dams.
It is based upon a preliminary analysis of:
- Existing dams.
- Present trends in dam construction.
RUOGH. The physical properties of hardened conventional concrete in dams
Проект. Физические свойства усиленного обычного бетона в плотинах
The purpose of this bulletin is to provide a comprehensive treatise on the physical properties of hardened conventional concrete for dams.
This bulletin addresses also the physical properties of the mass concrete used most frequently in design and analyses of concrete dams and appurtenant structures.
The scope of the bulletin is, to each property considered, to show typical behavior, factors influencing it, methods for experimental determination, and methods to introduce the properties in mathematical models to be utilized both for design and observation.
RUOGH. Dams and Ressetlement - Lessons learnt and recommendations
Проект. Плотины и переселение - Уроки и рекомендации
The report is intended to be an informational source for policy makers as well as implementers. It should highlight the latest policies, criteria and resettlement measures adopted, their implementation aspects and the performance or effectiveness of the mitigation measures taken to improve the living standards and quality of the life of the relocation.
This bulletin deal with issues implied by resettlement, it explains history cases and the lesson learnt, it recommends strategies.
Sedimentation and sustainable use of reservoirs and river systems
This Bulletin discusses the upstream and downstream fluvial morphological impacts of reservoir sedimentation and possible mitigation measures.
The current state and possible future sediment deposition in reservoirs have been investigated globally with the aid of the ICOLD Register on Dams.
This Bulletin also investigates the impacts of dams on the ecology related to fluvial morphological changes, and guidelines are proposed to try and mitigate the impacts on the downstream river morphology. Finally an economical model is presented which considers a life cycle approach and reservoir conservation.
Selecting seismic parameters for large dams - Guidelines (revision of Bulletin 72)
Выбор сейсмических параметров для больших плотин - Методические рекомендации (ревизия Бюллетеня 72)
Since then there have been significant advances in the seismic design of dams and a revised Bulletin is considered necessary which takes into account current practice in a number of countries with the following ends in view:
To provide a guide for the selection of parameters to be used in the seismic design, analysis and safety evaluation of new or existing dams and their appurtenant structures.
To promote consistency in handling the earthquake aspects of dam performance evaluation among owners, designers and various organizations involved in the planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance and regulation of dams.
This bulletin revision comes after several years of work by the Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design and has, in particular, addressed the following aspects:
A new section on Seismic Input parameters.
- Reference to liquefaction.
- Introduction of Safety Evaluation Earthquake (SEE).
- Improved references to problems posed when constructing dams across active faults.
- Improved references to Reservoir-Triggered Earthquakes (RTE).
- Additional material on Peak Vertical Accelerations and Earthquake Durations.
- Updated references to attenuation formulae
- Updated list of references.
Role of dams on the development and management of rivers basins.
Роль плотин в развитии и эксплуатации речных бассейнов
The aim of this report is to explain the role of dams in the development of river basins. We have stated that dams are simply tools for the management of water resources in rivers basins.
This bulletin focuses on the process of integrated river basin planning and management that has become an extremely diverse process involving a wide range of economic, and, as the major source of freshwater, is vital to mankind. Good management for sustainable development is the goal with all of its social, environmental and economic dimensions.
This bulletin analyse the role of dams in river basins and their contribution satisfying people needs. Then it deals with the integration of rivers basins as planning units for the development and management of water resources, finally it discuss the decision taking processes and stakeholder participation in different stage.
ROUGH. Cutoffs for dams
Проект. Нарезка швов на плотинах
This bulletin is limited to foundation treatment methods using cutoff-type barrier. Due to recent experiences, high emphasis is given to alluvial deposits throughout this document; however, different materials, such as pervious residual soil, pervious laterites and saprolites, highly fractured and weathered rock, and karst may require cutoff. The construction of cutoffs has made significant advances during the last two decades.
The following types of cutoffs are presented in this bulletin:
- Diaphragm walls;
- Vib walls;
- Pile walls;
- Superimposed concreted galleries;
- Jet grouting;
- Deep mixing;
- Case histories illustrate this bulletin.
Tropical residual soils as dam foundation and fill material
This bulletin provides guidance for the de-signers, owners, operators and regulators of tailing dams on closure considerations for design at all stages of the tailings dam. The bulletin contains three main sections with a discussion on the following topics:
Sustainable Closure Principles, covering current international practice, regulations, objectives, design life and phases, financial and risk management practices as they re-late to closure.
Sustainable Design Considerations, cover-ing the main aspects of physical, chemical, ecological and social stability associated with tailing dam closure.
Monitoring, covering post closure and long term monitoring requirements.
The document presents a range of interna-tional approaches to the subject of sustain-able tailings dam closure.
Cost savings in specific dams
Экономия средств при строительстве срециальных плотин
This bulletin has been devoted to cost savings in Dams, including 2 parts:
Identifying and mitigating existing factors detrimental to Cost Savings such as procedures, set ideas, unadapted specifications…
Technical opportunities for innovation and cost savings in the design of high and low dams built in usual conditions.
The present bulletin refers to such technical opportunities for innovation and cost savings when they apply to special dams for which the specific conditions may require or favour unusual criteria or designs and / or construction methods. They may be required by environmental problems, climatic changes or local physical or economical conditions. Such specific dams may in the future require over half of all dam investments.
Sustainable design and post-closure performance of tailings dams
Необходимая поддержка проекта даже после завершения выполнения функций, возложенных на плотины хвостохранилищ
This bulletin provides guidance for the designers, owners, operators and regulators of tailing dams on closure considerations for design at all stages of the tailings dam.
The bulletin contains three main sections with a discussion on the following topics:
Sustainable Closure Principles, covering current international practice, regulations, objectives, design life and phases, financial and risk management practices as they relate to closure.
Sustainable Design Considerations, covering the main aspects of physical, chemical, ecological and social stability associated with tailing dam closure.
Monitoring, covering post closure and long term monitoring requirements.
The document presents a range of international approaches to the subject of sustainable tailings dam closure.
Dam safety management: Operational phase of the dam life cycle
Управление безопасностью плотины: этап эксплуатации во время жизненного цикла плотины
This Bulletin is devoted to the development and the implementation of a dam safety management system for dams in the operational phase of their life cycle.
It outlines the general structure of a systems approach to safety management, and strives to develop a system that can address all the interdependencies, and encompass all the arrangements necessary to ensure proper dam safety management.
The outline is built on the principles established in Bulletins 59 and 130, as well as the general philosophy that informs them both. In that respect this Bulletin is not intended to update or replace the Bulletin 59 which although written in 1987 is still valid and should remain as a primary source of guidance for these professionals who are applying traditional approach to dam safety
Guidelines for use of numerical models in dam engineering
Руководящие принципы использования цифровых моделей в конструировании плотин
This bulletin is made to help engineers in establishing a sound computation strategy based on a careful analysis of the problem to be solved, selecting the adequate software options needed, then carrying out the analysis in a progressive way with frequent checks, and finally using adequate outputs to make rational interpretation of the results achieved, so as to translate them into engineering decisions.This will be done through recommendations, and also examples in different contexts.
The present bulletin provides only few developments on the selection of input data, distributed among the different chapters. Moreover it voluntarily omits providing recommendations on performance criteria and solicitation combinations, since these aspects are generally widely covered by standards or codes in force in most countries. It does not cover computational fluid mechanics applications.
Integrated flood risk management
Комплексное управление рисками от паводков
Therefore, the purpose of the present bulletin is to give guidance in integrated flood risk management to people assigned technically or managerially with the task of flood management and control. Without giving preference for any method, the bulletin aims to describe the fundamental knowledge needed for flood management according to the current state-of-the art and to provide help in selecting the most appropriate design and implementation strategy, based on basin-specific characteristics and the framework of integrated flood risk management.
The prerequisites for all flood management are the understanding of flood characteristics and how to calculate both the magnitude and frequency of floods. Equally essential are the understanding of the impacts of floods, both negative and positive, and how to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate these. The knowledge of flood characteristics and impacts is a fundamental input to the risk analysis, which forms the basis for integrated flood management.
Small dams: Design, Surveillance and Rehabilitation
Малые плотины: Проектирование, наблюдение и восстановление
This bulletin was prepared as a guide for small dam owners, engineering, Government agencies, developers and contractors who are in charge with the design, construction, operation, maintenance and safety of small dams.
Design criteria and typical features for small dams are generally different from those for high dams, because the construction methods focus upon economy. So the risk may increase and corresponding accidents may cause significant victims. The basic principle of design is to produce a satisfactory functional structure at a minimum total cost. At the “Peculiar Features about the Design of Earthfill Dams” are presented the important contributions from China, United States, France South Africa, Australia and Japan, related to the recommended embankment slopes for small dams based on the experience with the construction of a large number of those small structures.
“Guidelines on Surveillance of Small Dams” presents the main recommendations in order to assure that the dams will behave appropriately and with a minimum cost. The construction of a dam can involve a significant investment and dam owners need to ensure that their money is well spent and that their dam becomes an asset.
Dam surveillance guide
Руководство по наблюдению за плотинами
Prepare guidelines for the optimal organisation of all components required for dam surveillance and monitoring (independently of the Automated Monitoring, already covered by Bulletin n° 118) with the purpose of dissemination in the fields of:
Visual inspection methods and procedures for improving their efficiency;
Continued availability and maintenance of technical data (documentation management for storage of engineering data and all information needed for periodical appraisal of the dam condition and support of engineering judgment as well as knowledge transfer from one generation to the next);
Optimization of instrumentation and monitoring (depending on the dam type and condition) and upgrading of instrumentation (on old dams);
Efficient management of monitoring data (acquisition, processing, conservation) and interpretation (of processed readings and observed data) to assess the present dam condition”