ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ПРОФСОЮЗОВ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
АКАДЕМИЯ ТРУДА И СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ
Кафедра профессиональных иностранных языков РЕФЕРАТ
по дисциплине «Иностранный язык»
покниге «Public Private Partnerships in Education»
(«Частно-государственное партнерство в образовании»)
Выполнила: аспирант кафедры
экономики и менеджмента
1-го года обучения
Мухтарова Танчулпан Ринатовна Проверила: к.п.н., профессор
Матвеева Ирина Владимировна
The original text…………………………………………………………. ...…….15
Public Private Partnerships in Education
A multi-authored monograph “Public Private Partnerships in Education” was written by Susan L. Robertson, Karen Mundy, Antoni Verger and Francine Menashy in the year 2012 and published in the United Kingdom.
'Far from simply being a form of cost sharing between the "state" and the "market," PPP has been celebrated by some, and condemned by others, as the champion of change in the new millennium. This book has been written by the best minds in education policy, political economy, and development studies. They convincingly argue that public private partnership represents a new mode of governance that ranges from covert support of the private sector (vouchers, subsidies) to overt collaboration with corporate actors in the rapidly growing education industry. The analyses are simply brilliant and indispensable for understanding how and why this particular best/worstpractice went global.' - Gita Steiner-Khamsi, Columbia University, New York, USA
This insightful book brings together both academics and researchers from a variety of international organizations and aid agencies to explore the complexities of public private partnerships (PPPs) as a resurgent, hybrid mode of educational governance that operates across scales, from the community to the global.
The contributors expertly study the different types of partnership arrangements and thoroughly critique the value of PPPs. Some chapters explore how PPPs, as a policy idea, have been constructed in transnational agendas for educational development and circulated globally, whilst other chapters explore the role and implications of PPPs in developing countries, providing arguments for and against an expanding reliance on PPPs in national educational systems.
The theoretical framing of the book draws upon leading theories of international relations to develop a unique perspective on the global governance of education. It will prove insightful for both scholars and policymakers in public policy and education.
This very monograph is based on the research of such outstanding scientists as:
Felipe Barrera-Osorioan Assistant Professor at the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. He applies impact evaluation methods to find causal effects of innovative programs in education.
Dr. Zahra Bhanji is a Policy and Research Manager at The Learning Partnership, a Canadian education NGO. She leads the organization’s national research and evaluation initiatives and multi-sector knowledge mobilization activities.
Alexandra Draxler an education specialist who worked for many years for UNESCO. She was the Secretary of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (created by UNESCO), whose report ‘Education: the Treasure Within’ (1996) was published in more than 30 languages.
Joanna Harma started working in education in India in early 2002, and earned her doctorate from the University of Sussex in 2009 for a thesis exploring parental school choice making in rural Uttar Pradesh.
Analla V. Jaimovicha doctoral candidate in Education Policy at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She holds a BA in Education Sciences from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and an M.Phil. in Politics, Democracy and Education from the University of Cambridge, UK.
Akanksha A. Marphatiahas 20 years of experience in gender and education issues in sub-Saharan Africa and India. She has worked as the Head of International Education at ActionAid International and was elected to the Education For All Fast Track Initiative’s Executive Board.
Francine Menashy a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Comparative, International and Development Education Centre of the University of Toronto/ Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, on a fellowship funded by the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation.
Karen Mundyan Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto.
Su-Ann Oh a Visiting Research Fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, conducting research on conflict, education, forced migration, exclusion and identity, and the everyday experiences of displaced children.
Harry Anthony Patrinosa Lead Education Economist at the World Bank. He specializes in all areas of education, especially school-based management, demand-side financing and public private partnerships.
Susan L. Robertson is currently Professor of Sociology of Education, University of Bristol, UK. She is Director of the Centre for Globalisation, Education and Societies, as well as founding editor of the journal, Globalisation, Societies and Education.
Maria Ron-Balserais pursuing a PhD in Human Development at the Education and Capabilities School at Bielefeld University.
Pauline Rose is currently Director of the EFA Global Monitoring Report based at UNESCO in Paris. Before joining the GMR, Pauline was Reader in International Education at the University of Sussex.
Prachi Srivastavais currently Associate Professor at the School for International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Canada. She obtained her doctorate from the University of Oxford in 2005, and was previously ESRC Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, University of Oxford, and Lecturer at the Centre for International Education, University of Sussex.
Justin van Fleet is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Center for Universal Education. His research focuses on education in developing countries, particularly the role of private sector philanthropy in financing education systems and the dynamics influencing public private partnerships.
Antoni Verger is a ‘Ramon у CajaT researcher at the Department of Sociology of the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and a research fellow at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR) of the University of Amsterdam.
Over the past two decades, significant changes in the governance of education systems have been put into place as international institutions, governments, firms, philanthropies and consultants have promoted more hybrid partnership arrangements, involving new combinations of state and non-state actors engaged in a range of activities within the education sector. These newer forms of education governance often operate across scales, through interactions between local, regional and national governments and intergovernmental organizations, and between these and national and transnationally configured profit firms, philanthropists, NGOs and religious organizations.
A wide range of terms have now emerged to capture these developments, though arguably in the international community it is the term Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) that has been globalized and acquired iconic status. At the broadest level, PPPs can be defined as ‘cooperative institutional arrangements between public and private sector actors’, or more elaborately as ‘...cooperation of some sort of durability between public and private actors, in which they jointly develop products and services and share risks, costs and resources which are connected with these products’ (Hodge, Greave and Boardman 2010, p.4).
Based largely on papers presented at a symposium held in 2009 at the University of Amsterdam,1 this volume brings together both academics and researchers from a variety of international organizations and aid agencies to explore the complexities of PPPs as a resurgent, hybrid mode of educational governance that operates across scales, from the community to the global. The volume’s authors draw from different disciplines (economics, sociology, political science and comparative education, among others); they look at different types of partnership arrangements; and take different positions about the value of PPPs. An initial section of the book contains chapters exploring how PPPs, as a policy idea, have been constructed in transnational agendas for educational development and circulated globally. A second group of chapters looks at the role played by a new generation of multilateral and transnational private sector actors (including the World Trade Organization, the International Financial Corporation, transnational corporations, venture philanthropies and international nongovernmental organizations). In a final section are chapters exploring the role and implications of PPPs in developing countries, providing arguments both for, and against, an expanding reliance on PPPs in national educational systems.
Before turning to these chapters, it’s necessary to present the structure of the book. It consists of three logical parts. Each of them contains thematically distributed works of these very scientists.
An introduction to public private partnerships and education governance Susan L. Robertson, Karen Mundy, Antoni Verger and Francine Menashy
Governing education through public private partnership Susan L. Robertson and Antoni Verger
PART I THE RISE OF PPPS IN EDUCATION:
HISTORY AND CONCEPTUAL DEBATES
International PPPs in education: New potential or privatizing public goods? Alexandra Draxler
Public private partnerships, neoliberal globalization and democratization Mark Ginsburg
PART II UNDERSTANDING TRANSNATIONAL PPP ACTORS
The role of the International Finance Corporation in the
promotion of public private partnerships for educational development Karen Mundy and Francine Menashy
The GATS game-changer: International trade regulation and the constitution of a global education marketplace Antoni Verger and Susan L. Robertson
Private foundations, philanthropy and partnership in education and development: Mapping the terrain Prachi Srivastava and Su-Ann Oh
A disconnect between motivations and education needs: Why American corporate philanthropy alone will not educate the most marginalized Justin van Fleet
Microsoft Corporation: A case study of corporate-led PPPs in education Zahra Bhanji
PART III THE IMPACT OF PPPS IN EDUCATION: EVIDENCE FROM THE FIELD
The role and impact of public private partnerships in education Felipe Barrera-Osorio, Juliana Guaqueta and Harry Anthony Patrinos
Do public private partnerships fulfil the right to education? An examination of the role of non-state actors in advancing equity, equality and justice Maria Ron-Balsera and Akanksha A. Marphatia
Why girls’ education rather than gender equality? The strange political economy of PPPs in PakistanShailaja Fennell
The role of central management structures in public private partnerships: The case of Fe у Alegrfa schools in Peru Anali'a V. Jaimovich
The first chapter Do public private partnerships fulfill the right to education? An examination of the role of non-state actors I advancing equity, equality and justice Maria Ron-Balsera and Akanksha A. Marphatiais an introduction to the monograph which reflects all the reasons for discussing this subject and all the general tendencies in up-to-date public private partnerships. It contains various definitions of the term and its participation in the life of national and international governments.
PART I THE RISE OF PPPS IN EDUCATION: HISTORY AND CONCEPTUAL DEBATESbegins from the article Governing education through public private partnerships by Susan L. Robertson and Antoni Verger. They suggested a need for careful examination of PPPs in terms of the types and geopolitical levels of partners that participate, the motives that drive the participation of different partners, and the kinds of roles and degree of power exercised by various partners. While PPPs increasingly populate the terrain of activity in education and other sectors internationally, we should not treat public private partnerships as a homogeneous phenomenon. There is clearly a need for additional empirical research on the nature of PPPs, how they vary across sectors, countries and time. Given the heterogeneity of the concept and practice of PPPs, it is not surprising that there are different views on the extent to which public private partnerships contribute or detract from neoliberal globalization and support, or undermine democratization at local, national and global levels.
The premise of the chapter International PPPs in education: New potential or privatizing public goods? By Alexandra Draxler is that public private partnerships have been promoted as tools for expanding choice, introducing innovation and enhancing resources for education without sufficient analytical work and public debate about the means required to ensure they meet the hopes pinned on them, or at the very least do no worse in serving the public good than the public sector acting alone.Previous sections have pointed to some of the potential pitfalls of PPPs that include distortion of national priorities, lack of sufficient oversight, hidden costs, no guarantee of sustainability for potentially costly initial investment, inadequate attention to "equity and equality, and possible distortion of competition.
Mark Ginsburg in his article Public private partnerships, neoliberal globalization and democratization in order to locate and explain the rise, significance and global expansion of PPPs, looks back briefly to the advance of economic liberalism, more widely referred to as neoliberalism, as an alternative political project in the 1980s, and the subsequent transformations that took place in the organization of social, political and economic life. He looks particularly at the introduction of neoliberalism (quasi-markets, competition and nascent forms of privatization) into the education sector, and the opposition and challenges its key proponents confronted in attempting to reconstruct education so that it operates according to freer market principles. Then he turns to the emergence of PPPs at the beginning of the millennium, and the promises made by the idea of partnership. He focuses on the role of a key global development network in globalizing a particular kind of ePPP, and look at how this fits into a wider project which reconstitutes public education as an education services industry to be governed as part of the construction of a market society. Methodologically he draws on a number of sources of data: secondary literature, observations of PPPs in action, and interviews conducted in 2009-10 with key officials and experts engaged in promoting or researching PPPs in the educational field.
PART II UNDERSTANDING TRANSNATIONAL PPP ACTORS begins with the extract “The role of the International Finance Corporation in the promotion of public private partnerships for educational development” where Karen Mundy and Francine Menashy has shown how the IFC came to play a role in supporting the expansion of private provision of education in middle and low-income countries, particularly at the post-secondary level. It also suggests, however, that despite recent pronouncements to the contrary, public private partnerships remain a surprisingly 'disorganized' arena of World Bank Group engagement, delinked in substantive ways from the World Bank Group's overarching poverty alleviation mandate.
The GATS game-changer: International trade regulation and the constitution of a global education marketplace by Antoni Verger and Susan L. Robertson contains arguments that the GATS represents an ambitious political project in market-making in education since it is the clearest expression of the multilateral system working to open market opportunities for the private sector in education systems worldwide. However, the WTO/GATS is not the only force producing a stable and expanding global education market. The constitution of this market, as with any other institutional change, is driven by material, normative and regulatory elements (Campbell 2004). Although these elements are interlinked and also feed into each other, they are analytically different. At the material level, the global education market is mostly supported by the fact that cross-border trade in education is a growing business that generates billions of dollars annually.
The review Private foundations, philanthropy and partnership in education and development: Mapping the terrain of Prachi Srivastava and Su-Ann Oh was intended as a necessary first step in this process and it framed the issues around the three central claims of neutrality, efficiency and effectiveness surrounding philanthropy and private foundations. The analysis showed significant contestation in relation to the three claims. However, given the exploratory nature of the review, the chapter has thrown up many more questions, indicating a real need for systematic research to shed light on the many gaps that exist in our understanding.
In the part A disconnect between motivations and education needs: Why American corporate philanthropy alone will not educate the most marginalizedJustin van Fleet shows that corporate philanthropy has limitations. The data from the study demonstrates that US companies align contributions to education with their private interests in attempts to fulfill their duties to maximize profit. In most instances, the current power arrangement between corporate philanthropy and communities is not equal. However, while mixing corporate interests and public goods is indeed challenging and problematic, it is not an impossible combination. Acknowledging the need to shift relationships is the first step in moving towards more effective uses of corporate philanthropy for global education. It is important for the global education community - ministries, donors, communities, local governments and practitioners - to acknowledge the assets of corporate philanthropy while also having a clear understanding of its limitations. Identifying instances where shared value can result from corporate support of government-defined, and -led, education activities may not only be good for business, but it is good for society. On the other hand, accepting corporate engagement at face value as a single strategy for education should be expected to lead to more marginalization and inequality in the global education system.
This chapter Microsoft Corporation: A case study of corporate-led PPPs in education by Zahra Bhanji focuses on Microsoft's flagship international public private partnership (PPP) in education, the Partners in Learning (PiL) programme Microsoft's vision for the PiL programme is to: Empower schools to help improve student achievement by applying resources sui h as services, products and people at the local level. By partnering with schools and government we aim to set a new high standard for digital inclusion for students and work with schools to prepare students for the digital workplace; empower educator* to raise the level of ICT literacy in their institution and support teachers and schools in developing innovative cultures. (Microsoft Corporation 2006). This chapter also presents findings from research conducted in Jordan and South Africa.
Part III of this book, entitled 'The Impact of PPPs in Education: Evidence from the Field' presents a range of case studies and reviews of the PPP experience in less developed countries. It begins with two broadly-based selections arguing for and against the expansion of PPPs. Chapter 10, by Barrera-Osorio, Guaqueta and Patrinos, leads the section with an overview of research on private provision of schooling, its advantages, and mechanisms for expanding it. The chapter combines data from a number of countries on voucher programmes, subsidies, private management contracts and private financing initiatives, and argues that private delivery can improve access to disadvantaged groups and encourage specialization and quality. In Chapter 11, Ron-Balsera and Marphatia present a strongly opposing view of the value of PPPs, based on research evidence and the experiences of ActionAid. The tensions between human rights approaches to educational development and PPPs as a policy solution for reaching the poor are amply illustrated in these two contributions.
In the research The role and impact of public private partnerships in education Felipe Barrera-Osorio, Juliana Guaqueta and Harry Anthony Patrinos underlines that supporting individual capacity and talent through education requires sustained commitment. The case studies used in this chapter show that while it is easier to facilitate access and availability of education, making learning adaptable and acceptable is much harder and can likely only be fulfilled by longer-term investment, that the State can provide. Furthermore, where the private sector has failed in advancing accountability, participation and nondiscrimination, these non-state actors have succeeded, but not by doing it on their own. Rather, it is their focus on empowering communities to know their rights and to demand a just and equal education that makes a difference. Using a rights-based approach to influence the government to make education a political priority than directly financing, building and managing schools in place of the State can create better efficient quality education systems and foster greater accountability, thereby challenging the very justification used for expanding PPPs.
India Joanna Hdrmd and Pauline Rose in their article Is low-fee private primary schooling affordable for the poor? Evidence from rural explore the PPP experience in specific countries. Harma and Rose (Chapter 12) provide an overview of low-fee private schools (LFPS), reviewing evidence on affordability in India, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria and Malawi. They demonstrate that such schools cannot reach students from the bottom income quintiles, and document parental preference for reform to the public system (over the expansion of LFP) because of long-term challenges to sustainability of individual LFPS. Also highlighted are the challenges that governments might face in administering voucher schemes, where household level cash transfers might be required to cover fees. They conclude that it may be preferable to fund the improvement of the government system, rather than the expansion of LFPS.
The next Fennell's chapter on Why girls’ education rather than gender equality? The strange political economy of PPPs in Pakistan raises the issue of PPP in education decontextualized from a 'gendered reality'. Her chapter focuses on community perceptions of PPP in the province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and presents evidence that while parents are keen for both their sons and daughters to benefit from private schools, students are more keen on teaching quality and regularity within schools, independent of whether they are public or private. She also finds that the gendered perspective in the way international organizations conceive PPP programmes is too narrow (usually focused on girls' school access).
The final article The role of central management structures in public private partnerships: The case of Fe y Alegria schools in Peru Analia by V. Jaimovich is intended to offer readers a fresh look at the public private partnership debate in education, by exploring the complexity and nuances of diverse types of PPP mechanisms, and their impacts in varied contexts.
Chapters in this volume seek to review the evolution of global policy discourses on PPPs; unpack the roles of new intergovernmental proponents of PPPs (like the WTO and the IFC); trace the motivation for, and shape of, new forms of corporate philanthropy; and bring to light intriguing questions about non-state organizations who increasingly provide educational services in less developed countries. Each chapter offers a distinctive answer to the question: In new partnerships arrangements who wins and who loses? And who has the power to decide?
While a wider literature suggests that there are benefits to PPPs - they can be pro-poor, harness new forms of innovation, tap into community preferences and needs, and (especially when structured as philanthropies) offer new source of financial support for education - the majority of authors in this volume are rather sceptical of the equity impacts of private sector participation, citing the associated erosion of citizens' voice as a contributor to change, and the potential ways in which PPPs can detract from the status of education as a public good and a human right.
PPPs are clearly shifting the structures through which educational life chances are organized and governed. Because of this, there is an urgent need for both more empirical research, and more open-ended debate engaging advocates and opponents of PPPs as a new arena of educational governance. At every scale, public private partnership arrangements need greater scrutiny and understanding, because they are certainly with us to stay.