5. Какие свойства строительных материалов могут иметь преимущества, а какие могут иметь недостатки? (работа в парах)
high cost fire-resistance non-fire-resistance
low resistance low cost high strength
high weight durability corrosion-resistance
heavy weight hardness softness
6. Соедините вместе а) прилагательные б) существительные (письменно).
а) artificial, durable, various, useful, low, advantageous, high
b) process, materials, properties, strength, industry, resistance, cost
7. Какие из слов данных ниже являются существительными, глаголами, прилагательными, наречиями. Переведите слова (работа в парах).
1. It is the most ancient building materials. 2. They were used thousands years ago. 3. Architects use it to add beauty to modern homes and offices. 4. It burns and decays. 5. Its main components are synthetic resins. 6. It is light and easy to work. 7. It is a mixture of sand, cement, crushed stone and water. 8. It is an example of artificial stone. 9. Raw materials are coal, peat, and oil. 10. It is the natural building material. 11. It has good insulating properties. 12. It has a mechanical strength and compactness. 13. It is fire resistant. 14. It is light and water resistant.
11. Обсудите следующую ситуацию (ролевая игра): два инженера обсуждают выбор строительных материалов для а) многоэтажного дома б) загородного дома.
Назовите а) свойства древесины, б) преимущества, в) недостатки, г) применение древесины.
2.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова и выражения после текста
TEXT 1. TIMBER
Timber belongs to one of the oldest building materials. It has been from ancient times and is still produced from cut wood.
Timber has always been highly usable in construction because of its many advantages. To these belong its strength, light weight, cheapness, and high workability. Its other advantage is that it belongs to natural resources and is naturally renewable. It is the more so that about a third of the world is still considered to be covered with forests. Besides, timber is resistant to corrosion produced by chemical substances in the modern polluted atmosphere. One more advantage of timber is that it can be used for many construction purposes. But, naturally, timber has disadvantages and the main ones are that it is not fire-resistant and it easily decays; especially if it is not impregnated. Besides, freshly cut timber contains water that may cause great structural defects. Removal of water from timber is a necessary procedure that should take place before timber is used in practice. It increases strength and workability of the material and, of course, its durability.
What is timber mainly used for? Because of its many advantages it is highly used for producing window and floor frames, for flooring and roofing and for other various woodwork. The two main types of timber are hardwoods and softwoods. Of them, hardwoods are popular as materials used for decorative purposes: veneering in furniture and panelling. As to softwoods, they are mainly used for producing window and door frames and other kinds of internal woodwork.
Timber is widely used in modern construction for …
Timer cannot be used after it has been felled because …
… increases the strength and durability of timber.
12. Ответьте на следующие вопросы (работа в парах):
What structural materials does timber belong to?
What is it produced from?
What are the main advantages (disadvantages) of timber?
Why is removal of water from timber useful for construction purposes?
What are the two main types of timber?
What are softwoods (hardwoods) used for?
How much of the world's land surface is considered to be covered with forests?
What countries are rich (poor) in forests?
13.Составьте диалог, используя вопросы упр.12 (ролевая игра). 14.Переведите отрывок письменно.
Timber is wood, suitable for building and structural purposes.
There are over 4000 woods in common use throughout the world. The best and most commonly used softwoods popular for structural work in many countries are redwood, whitewood, pine, red cedar, sequoia, beech and some others. As to the hardwoods, the best known ones include beech, birch, blackwood, chestnut, elm, mahogany, maple, myrtle, oak, rosewood, walnut and some others. TEXT 2. Timber
Timber framing and conventional wood framing are two different forms of construction. Timber framed structures use fewer, larger timbers with dimensions from IS to 30 cm and mortice and tenon or wooden pegs as fastening methods, whereas conventional woodframed buildings have a greater number of timbers with dimensions from 5 to 25 cm, and nails or other mechanical fasteners are used to join the timbers. Today timber structures are often surrounded in manufactured panels, such as Structural Insulating Panels (SIPs). They are made up of two rigid woodenbased composite materials with a foamed insulating material inside. This method is used because these structures are easier to build and they provide more efficient heat insulation. Timber-framed construction offers a lot of advantages. It is kind to the environment (when the wood used is taken from sustainable forests) and the frames can be put up quickly. Its design is elegant and simple, and also both practical and adaptable. It can give a house character, both inside and outside. Thanks to its strength, large open spaces can be created, something which is not so easy to obtain with other techniques. It is very versatile, so timber-framed houses can also be clad with stone or brick. This offers two more advantages: the house can blend in with the surrounding area (both urban and rural) and it is very energy-efficient. Timber is also cheaper than other materials.
Do timber-framed structures use larger or smaller timbers compared to conventional wood framing?
Which fastening methods do the two different methods use?
What structures have been recently used? How are they made up?
What are the advantages of this method?
Почитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact) that…
There are several advantages to timber frame construction but there are also disadvantages that you should be aware of before deciding if it meets your needs. Wood is a porous and very combustible material, susceptible to water, fire and bugs. Water can be absorbed into the material, causing it to rot and mould, which can compromise the strength and cause adverse health effects. This can be a major problem in humid or damp climates. Wood is also very flammable, which makes the material a fire hazard. Ants and termites eat wood framing, with serious effects on the strength of the construction. Logging for timber framing can have a major environmental impact. Producing boards and beams for timber frame construction requires cutting down trees. Large, old-growth forests are sometimes clear cut to produce wood for timber construction, which can lead to other problems such as soil erosion and destruction of wildlife habitats. Wood is an excellent transmitter of sound waves so any noise inside or outside is easily heard throughout the home. This can be a major problem if there are several people living in the house or if it is located near a noisy street as sounds are transmitted very clearly. Timber frames are quite strong up and down but not as strong as other materials horizontally. So if your building design has a large room with a long span, it will be difficult for timber frame construction to handle the weight. You may need to have a post in the middle to absorb some of the weight.
Water can be (1)_____ into the material causing it to rot and mould.
Wood is very (2)__________
Ants and termites eat wood (3) __________
Producing boards and beams for timber frame construction requires (4) __________trees.
Wood is an excellent (5)_______ of sound waves so any noise inside and outside is easily heard.
Timber frames are quite strong up and down but not as strong as other materials (6) _______
Назовите а) свойства камня, б) преимущества, в) недостатки, г) применение камня (мозговой штурм).
2.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова и выражения после текста.
TEXT 1. STONE
Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest days. Almost of all famous buildings of classic times, of the medieval and Renaissance periods and of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were erected of stone masonry. In some places stone was used because of the scarcity of timber, bin in other places stone was preferred because of its durability.
The stones which are usually used for masonry work are as follows:
1) Granite is very hard, strong and durable. It is used particularly for basements base courses, columns and steps and for the entire facades. Its colour may be gray yellow pink or deep red.
2) Sandstone. Sandstone is composed of grains of sand or quarts cemented together. Sandstones form one of the most valuable materials. The durability of sandstones depends very largely upon the cementing material.
Thus, there are different kinds of sandstones. Many sandstones are exceptionally hard and are selected for steps, sills etc. The excellent state of preservation of many ancient buildings built of this stone is evidence of this. But city buildings constructed of sandstone often assume a drab appearance owing to the dark colour. It is an excellent material for concrete aggregate.
3) Marble is a crystalline stone chiefly used for decorative purposes
White and black marbles are used for ornamental decoration where the beauty of the marble is shown to its best advantage.