Учебное пособие для студентов направления 08. 03. 01 «Строительство», профиль «Промышленное и гражданское строительство»

Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах)

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  1. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах):

      1. structural material

      2. the earliest days

      3. Renaissance period

      4. stone masonry

      5. scarcity of timber

      6. as follows

      7. base courses

      8. valuable material

      9. concrete aggregate

      10. ornamental decoration

      11. best advantage

  1. бетонный заполнитель

  2. ценный материал

  3. основной венец(каменной крепи)

  4. строительный материал

  5. фигурное украшение

  6. давние времена

  7. недостаток древесины

  8. эпоха Ренессанса (Возрождения)

  9. самое большое преимущество

  10. каменная кладка

  11. следующее

  1. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним эквиваленты из правого столбца. Дайте русский перевод данных синонимов (работа в парах).

    1. structural material

    2. since the earliest times

    3. famous

    4. erect

    5. structure

    6. durable

    7. largely

    8. exceptionally hard

      1. Building

      2. strong

      3. very hard

      4. construct, build

      5. since ancient times

      6. well known

      7. building material

      8. chiefly

6.Закончите следующие предложения, используя английские эквиваленты из текста в соответствии с текстом. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык (работа в парах).

          1. Stone has been used as a structural material since (древних времен).

          2. The art of making any structure in stone is called (каменная кладка).

          3. Granite is used particularly for (фундаментов, колонн, ступеней и т.д.)

          4. Sandstone is composed of (зерен песка и кварца).

          5. Sandstone is an excellent material for (заполнителя бетона)

          6. Sandstones form one of the most (ценных материалов)

          7. Limestones are used extensively for (строительных целей).

          8. Marbles are chiefly used for (декоративных целей)

7. Используя слова и предложения из текста докажите что (ролевая игра):

1.Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest times.

2.Stone was widely used because …



3. Stone is one of the most valuable materials.

8.Закончите предложения в соответствии с текстом (работа в парах).

  1. Stones used for masonry work are …

  2. Granite is used for…

  3. Sandstones are used as… and for …

  4. Marble is used for … and for …

9.Напишите пересказ следующего текста на английском языке, используя лексику изученных уроков.

Одним из наиболее древних строительных материалов является камень. Каменные конструкции просты в изготовлении, обладают долговечностью, и огнестойкостью. Для сооружения каменных конструкций применяют искусственные и природные камни.

Природные камни тяжелых пород – известняки, песчаники, граниты -используют для облицовки стен, возведения фундаментов. Природные камни легких пород в южных районах используют для возведения стен.

К искусственным камням относят кирпич различных видов, камни из бетона.


        1. Почитайте текст и найдите соответствующую половину предложения.

Stone walls are one of the oldest construction methods known to mankind. The first stone walls were made laying up stones without any mortar. With this method stones are held together by gravity. These walls are usually larger at the base. In Ireland and north-eastern UK counties this kind of wall was made by farmers to create fences. It was quite a long and labour-intensive method, but with no costs. When cement appeared, the first mortared stone walls were created, where cement paste fills the gaps between the stones. The first cements were made using burnt gypsum or lime, mixed with water. Concrete includes Portland cement mixed with sand, gravel and water, which makes it resistant to cracking. To make it even more resistant, steel reinforcing bars can be added. Most stone walls today are made using this method, because it is fast and cheap.

1 The first stone walls were made …

2 When cement appeared …

3 The first cements were created using….

4 Concrete is Portland cement….

5 Steel reinforcing bars can be added ….

  1. burnt gypsum or lime, mixed with water.

  2. to make concrete even more resistant. -

  3. first mortared stone walls were created.

  4. without any mortar.

  5. mixed with sand, gravel and water.


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Text 1. BRICK

Brick, stone, and timber are known to be the oldest building materials. Bricks belong to artificial (man-made) materials. Their production started in prehistoric times. Since then they have been produced and tested in all types of climate and in many countries. Thousands of years ago the builders in Egypt already knew the advantages of bricks and used them for construction. In those days the production of bricks was quite different from the modern one: bricks wore produced not by burning but by drying in the sun, there being much sunshine in Egypt all the year round. Brick work was also popular in Rome, there being very few growing forests and as a result little timber there.

In modern times bricks can be made of concrete, mortar, of burnt clay and of a combination of some other substances. For example, different types of clay and shale can be used as raw materials. Accordingly, bricks produced nowadays have different sizes, shapes, colours, and textures. Bricks also vary with the method of fabrication and temperatures of burning. It should be noted that some types of brick, such as, for example, salmon bricks are underburnt and highly porous. Naturally, their strength is extremely poor. This property of salmon brick should be taken into account when choosing brick material for construction. But there exist many other types of brick that are extremely strong and almost glass hard. Between these extremes there lie some other types of brick with different properties. Brick properties are of great importance and should be taken into account while choosing material for construction purposes.

2. Выберете и запишите правильный вариант.

  1. Shale and clay belong to (natural, man-made) materials.

  2. (Metal and glass, clay and mortar) are used

for fabricating bricks.

3. In (prehistoric, modern) times bricks (are, were)

made by {drying in the sun, burning) .

  1. Russia is extremely (rich, poor) in raw materials.

  2. There were (many, few) growing forests in Rome in pre­historic times.

  3. Bricks (are extremely different, do not differ) in size,

colour, and texture.

3. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на независимый причастный оборот.

  1. Salmon brick being porous and underburnt, its strength is extremely poor.

  2. Modern bricks being different in size, texture, and colours, one can easily choose the type of brick necessary for one's construction.

  3. Timber being strong and workable, it is widely used for flooring and roofing.

  4. Freshly cut wood containing some moisture, it cannot be classified as a strong building material.

  5. The upper stratum of soil being organic, it must be removed from the building area.

  6. Wood panels requiring less labour for installation, they are widely used for construction purposes.

4.Составьте диалог, используя вопросы (ролевая игра).

  1. What building materials are considered to be the oldest ones?

  2. What natural (man-made) materials are used for construction nowadays?

  3. Is brick a newly produced or an ancient building material?

  4. In what countries are there (many, few) growing forests?

  5. What countries are rich (poor) in raw materials?

  6. What properties of brick should be taken into account when choos­ing material for building purposes?

Types of Brick

clay brick

глиняный кирпич

ceramic b.

керамический к.

lime and sand b.

известково-песчаный к.

common b.

красный к.

porous b.

пористый к.

solid b.

полнотелый к.

air b.

пустотелый к.

wall b.

стеновой к.

shaped b.

фасонный к.

cellular b.

ячеистый к.

pressed b.

прессованный к.

5. Прочитайте данные в таблице выше. Переведите их a) с английского языка на русский язык; b) с русского языка на английский язык (работа в парах).

6. Переведите предложения письменно.

  1. Bricks are divided into several grades.

  2. In what way should bricks as a building material be transported?

  3. Don't load bricks in bulk!

  4. Don't use pale bricks or overturned bricks.


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


It is a well-known fact that there exist many types of bricks. Some of I hem are highly usable in construction while others are not popular because of their poor properties. Between these types there lie various types that are used for specific purposes. To them belong, for example, ceramic tiles.

Ceramic tiles is a burned-clay product. It is mainly used for decorative and sanitary purposes.

A ceramic tile consists of a clay body (корпус) covered with decorative glaze. Ceramic tiles are usually flat in form. They are extremely various. They vary in size from about 1/2 in square to more than 6 in. Their shapes are widely variable: squares, rectangles, hexagones, and others. Ceramic tiles are produced from clays of different colours. But — strange as it is — their colours do not depend on the colours of clays they are made of. Tiles are glazed, as a rule, and their colour depends on the colour of the glaze they are covered with. It is quite natural that ceramic tiles in practice exist in wide variety of colours: from pure whites to deep darks and blacks. Ceramic tiles are applied to the covered surface by means of a mortar or some adhesive substance. They are usually applied with the thinnest mortar joint.

2. Составьте диалог, используя вопросы (ролевая игра).

  1. Is the body of a ceramic tile covered with some substance? What substance is it covered with?

  2. What spheres are ceramic tiles used in?

  3. Do they differ in forms, colours, and shapes?

  4. What are their colours and sizes?

  5. By what means are ceramic tiles applied to the surfaces? Are they applied with a thick or thin adhesive joint?


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


Terracotta belongs to decorative types of brick. They are produced of burned clay. Their structural properties being similar to the properties of brick, they are often used in a manner similar to brick. Terracotta also exists in a wide variety of colours from pure whites to blacks. Their colour depends on the colour of the glaze they are covered with. Different adhesive substances are used for the application of terracotta to the surfaces being decorated with them.

  1. Составьте 3-4 вопроса к тексту и задайте их друг другу (работа в парах).

TEXT 4. Brick

            1. Причитайте текст и напишите список преимуществ и недостатков кирпича.

Masonry construction is a method that has been used for centuries around the world. It is usually used for walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. The most frequent type of masonry is brick, but concrete block is also becoming more and more popular. Brick was one of the first building materials that man used and has been used since the times of the ancient Egyptians because it offers a great number of advantages. First of all, it has an affordable price and it is made of accessible raw material, which has long durability and good insulating properties. It is a strong material and is perfect for load-bearing systems where the loads are compressive. It is the size of a man's hand and therefore simple to use. The appearance of the final work depends on the ability and expertise of the bricklayer. Another advantage of using brick is that, like stone, it offers increased comfort in the heat of the summer and the cold of the winter. Being heat resistant, this material also offers good fire protection.

One of the disadvantages of using this material is that masonry must be built on a firm foundation to prevent settling and cracking, and in the presence of expansive soils the foundation may need to be elaborate. Moreover, this is a heavy material, consequently the structural requirements will have to be increased, especially if the area is subject to earthquakes.


affordable price


        1. Прочитайте тест снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие выражения:

The text is about …

At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …

Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …

After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}

At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact) that…


1. Запомните и выучите следующее термины.

concrete — бетон quality — качество

aggregate — заполнитель (бетона) tensile — растяжимый, вязкий

coarse — крупный, необработан- to crush - дробить

ный, сырой accordingly - соответственно

fine — тонкий, мелкозернистый the very — именно тот, тот самый

precast — готовый, готовоотлитый

2. Определите части речи и переведите слова.

the very, slab, tensile, coarse, crush, gravel, member, cast, quality

3. Соедини данные прилагательные a) с данными существительными; б) с русскими словосочетаниями.

Model: дробленый гравий - crushed gravel

  1. crushed, coarse, fine

  2. sand, gravel, aggregate

дробленый песок —

крупный гравий —

мелкозернистый заполнитель —

  1. Прочитайте термины и переведите их с русского языка (работа в парах).

concrete slab — бетонная плита

slab roof— кровля из плит

tensile strength — прочность на растяжение

site of foundation — пласт под фундаментом

slab covering — настил из плит

5. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык.

the very site of construction proportionally divided amounts

carefully mixed aggregates the very site of production

6. Выберете правильный вариант и вставьте в предложения.

1. Concrete as a building material possesses {only advantages, both advantages and disadvantages).

  1. Concrete is considered to be a {universally used material, rarely used material) .

  2. One of the qualities of concrete is that (it does not possess tensile strength, possesses tensile strength) .

  3. Ferro-concrete is {rather popular, not popular) in the modern construction.

  1. Gravel is classified as {coarse, fine) aggregate.

  2. One of the good qualities of concrete is its {high, low) cost.

  3. Concrete (decays and bums, does not decay and burn) .

7. Переведите следующие вопросы на русский язык. Найдите ответы в статье ниже.

  1. What properties make concrete a highly used construction material?

  2. What two types of aggregate are used for producing concrete?

  3. Is sand a coarse or fine aggregate?

  4. What ingredients does the quality of concrete depend upon?

  5. How long does the process of hardening the mixed components last?

  6. What is the difference between the so-called in-situ and precast concrete?

  7. What quality is considered to be the main disadvantage of concrete?

  8. For what reason is tensile strength considered to be an important quality?

  9. For what purpose are metals introduced into the structure of concrete?

  1. What metals is concrete frequently combined with?

  2. When did the use of ferro-concrete start?

  3. Would you like to live in a wooden or concrete building? Why?

  1. Прочитайте и переведите статью.

Concrete is considered to be a universal material for construction. Different kinds of concrete can be used practically for every building purpose. The raw materials for producing concrete can be found in every part of the world. The main property that makes concrete so popular is that it can be formed into strong monolithic slabs. Another good quality is its relatively low cost. Besides, concrete is known to be fire- and decay-resistant.

Concrete is produced by combining coarse and fine aggregates, Portland cement, and water. Coarse aggregate is generally gravel or crushed stone, while fine aggregate is sand. Cement, sand, gravel, and water are taken in proportional amounts and mixed. The quality of concrete depends mostly on the quality of the cement used. The process of production consists in pouring the mixed components into forms and holding them there until they harden. The process of hardening generally lasts for about 28 daysThere exist different ways of producing concrete. It can be produced by mixing the ingredients and pouring the mixture into position on the very site of building. Concrete can also be produced in a factory, and used as a material for manufacturing prefabricated blocks. Accordingly, there exist the so-called in-situ (cast-in-place) concrete and precast concrete.

Concrete, as any other building material, has not only advantages but also disadvantages. Its main disadvantage is that it has no form of its own. Also, it does not possess useful tensile strength. Because of these qualities, in modern times construction concrete is very frequently combined with different metals. Most common of them are iron and steel.

The introduction of metal into the structure of concrete is highly advantageous. It strengthens the material and helps to realize its limitless construction and architectural potential. It should be noted that the use of ferro-concrete started only in the nineteenth century and is still gaining popularity.
TEXT 2. CONCRETE (continued)

1. Запомните следующие слова.

bridge — мост

cell — ячейка, клетка, канал в

пустотном кирпиче

cellular concrete — ячеистый


dam - дамба, плотина

foam — пена

foamy — пустотелый, пенный

pile — свая

to emit — испускать, выделять

2. Определите части речи и переведите слова.

plain, cellular, foamy, foam, bridge, emission, emit, cell, pile, pipe

3.Переведите словосочетания на русский язык.

constant use foamy structure powerful emission

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

  1. Concrete having no form of its own, it is frequently combined with metals.

  2. Prestressed concrete is very popular, its good qualities being high strength and durability.

  3. Concrete with foamy and cellular structure being light, it is considerably decreased in strength.

5. Соедините данные английские словосочетания a) с соответствующими русскими словосочетаниями b).

Model: 1-2

a) 1. bridge beam b) 1. плоская черепица

  1. foamy structure 2. мостовая балка

  2. flat tile 3. укладка труб

  3. pipe laying 4. плоская черепица (плитка)

  4. bridge pile 5. пустотелая балка

  5. cellular girder 6. ячеистая структура

  6. cellular structure 7. мостовая свая

6. Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык (работа в парах).
bridge girder — pipeman —

bridge joint — pipe work —

bridge member —

7. Переведите вопросы на русский язык и ответьте на вопросы , используя текст.

  1. What factors does the quality of concrete depend upon?

  2. What is the main difference between plain and ferro-concrete?

  3. What constructions is ferro-concrete used for?

  4. What materials is concrete with cellular structure made up of?

  5. What qualities does concrete with foamy structure possess?

  6. What is its main disadvantage?

  1. Прочитайте и переведите статью.

The quality of concrete is known to depend on the properties of materials it consists of. The amount of constructing materials is also of great importance. Among the kinds of concrete used in modern construction are plain concrete and reinforced, or ferro-concrete. The usage of plain concrete is practically limitless. As to ferro-concrete, it is mostly used for construction of foundations, columns, girders and beams. This kind of concrete is also rather popular for constructing bridges, dams, and clock walls.

Concrete being a universally used material, its new kinds are being constantly produced. Among others there exists concrete with cells. Its main quality is that it is made up of materials that emit gas and foam during the process of mixing the aggregates with water. It should be taken into account that concrete of this type possesses relatively light weight. It is mostly used for producing slabs, wall panels, and frame constructions. As we know, decrease in weight leads to a considerable decrease in strength. This quality is classified as a great disadvantage of cellular concrete.


1. Запомните следующие термины (работа в парах):

beam — балка, бимс storage — хранение, запас

compression — сжатие tank — бак, резервуар

decade — десятилетие tower — башня, вышка, опора
pipe - труба

2. Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их русского языка на английский (работа в парах).

beam system -

compression stress —

storage tank —

pipe installation —

pipe joint —

tank tower —
3. Вставьте соответствующе глаголы и переведите слова.
Model: joint — to join — присоединяться к

compression — to _____________________

installation - to_____________________

relation —to _________________________________________________________________________

combination —to__________________________

storage —to

usage —to

service —to

production —to

pre-pref. — заранее, предварительно pre-examine — исследовать заранее

4. Прочитайте примеры и переведите их на русский язык (работа в парах).

prestressing -

prestressed reinforcement —

compressive stress —

5. Прочитайте и переведите статью.

Prestressed concrete is a relatively young product. It started to be widely used only during the last few decades, and is still gaining popularity. The reason of its popularity is its usefulness. The main good qualities of prestressed concrete are its high strength and durability. In prestressed concrete, concrete is combined with steel. This combination is highly advantageous and serves the purpose of producing a compressed stress in the concrete as a building material. For this reason any member of beam is under constant compression and as a result has no cracks. In modern times this type of concrete serves as construction material for beams, for pipes, find columns, storage tanks, water towers and the like.

3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

  1. What good qualities does prestressed concrete possess?

  2. What metal is it combined with?

  3. What purpose does this combination serve?

  4. What constructions is prestressed concrete mostly used for?

4. Прочитайте таблицу и переведите примеры а) с английского на русский язык; б) с русского на английский язык (работа в парах). Мы знаем, что бетон является универсально используемым строительным материалом, различные самые популярные виды бетона и их основные свойства перечислены ниже.

TABLE 1. Types of Concrete

architectural concrete

архитектурный бетон

asphalt с


gas с.


gypsum с

гипсовый б.

gravel с

бетон из гравия

precast с

заранее отлитый б.

plain с

неармированный б.

prestressed reinforced с

напряженно армированный б.

TABLE 2. Properties of Concrete

high-strength concrete

высокопрочный бетон

waterproof с

водонепроницаемый б.

nailable с

гвоздимый б.

lightweight с

легкий б., теплый б.

cast-in-situ с

монолитный б.

poor quality с

б. низкого качества

  1. Вставьте словосочетания с противоположным значением.

Model: poor quality concrete - high-grade concrete

high-strength concrete —

cast-in-situ —

lightweight concrete —.

plain concrete —

  1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What kind of concrete has practically universal usage?

  2. What kind of concrete is produced in factories?

  3. What are the main qualities of precast concrete?

  4. Why is concrete combined with metals?

  5. What kind of concrete serves as construction material for beams, pipes, storage tanks, water towers and the like?

7. Прочитайте примеры и переведите их на русский язык (работа в парах).

concreter —

concrete mixer —

concrete frame —

concrete workability —

8. Прочитайте и переведите статью.

Silica Concrete

Among the aggregates concrete is composed of, there are heavy and light ones. Silica belongs to comparatively new types of concrete. Its structure is rather special. It does not contain cement and is relatively light in weight. Besides, it is highly fire-resistant. Because of these and some other properties silica concrete is widely used in aviation and in building under­water constructions. But its disadvantages should be also taken into account: because of its light weight its strength is considerably decreased.

9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  1. Which of the two kinds of concrete possesses greater strength — cellular or asphalt concrete?

  2. What is the name of concrete having glass in its structure?

  3. What is the meaning of the term 'nailable'?

  4. What kind (kinds) of concrete has (have) practically limitless use?


1. Запомните следующие слова.

achievement - достижение

hydration - гидрация, присоединение воды

specification — технические условия

to cure — сохранять, исправлять, выдерживать

vapour - испарение, пар

liquid – жидкость

layer — слой

ratio — отношение

2. Вставьте соответствующие глаголы a) существительные b); переведите слова.

Model: foundation - to found (a) to enrich - enrichment (b)

a) corrosion


b) to enrich -



to require —



to achieve —



to attach -



to adjust —



specification -to

  1. Прочитайте словосочетания переведите их на русский язык (работа в парах).

covering material — материал покрытия

rover of roof — кровля

water/cement ratio — пропорция воды в растворе

concrete curing - выдержка бетона

compressive strength — сопротивление на сжатие

vapour pipe — паровой патрубок

vapour heating system — система парового отопления

5. a) Переведите данные предлоги на английский язык.

1. The cover zone is the layer (между) the steel reinforcement and concrete surface.

2. The durability of cover zone depends (от) the mix design of concrete.

3. (В течение) the period of concrete curing, a minimum of cement content and a maximum of water/cement ratio is included (в) the mix.

  1. Water is added (к) concrete (для) hydration of cement.

  2. Additional amounts of water increase the pores (в, внутри) the concrete's structure.

6. The process of concrete's curing lasts for (около) 28 days.

b) Переедите примеры на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод причастия II.

  1. ... additional amount of water poured into the mix...

  2. ... required strength achieved with minimum cement content...

  3. ... durability increased by adding water...

... workability provided by the necessary amount of aggregates...

7. Прочитайте и переведите статью.

One of the key requirements of concrete service is its durability. And the quality of cover zone (покрытие) is of primary importance for providing concrete's durability. The cover zone is the concrete layer between the steel reinforcement and concrete surface. It should be taken into account that durability of concrete zone depends upon the mix design of concrete and the properties of the concrete itself.

The process of concrete's curing, as we know, lasts for about 28 days. And the compressive strength at 28 days is considered to be the basis of concrete specification. During the period of curing, engineers frequently include a minimum of cement (content) and a maximum of water/cement ratio into the mix.

Naturally, different construction purposes require different cement content, and for many types of mixes the required strength can be achieved with the minimum cement content. Engineers add water to concrete for hydration of cement. But the minimum amount of water needed for hydration of the mix may be too little to provide the necessary workability of the mix. So, in order to increase workability of concrete, additional amounts of water can be poured into the mix. And what is the result of this operation? It turns out that additional amounts of water increase the pores within the concrete's structure, especially after evaporation. It leads, in its turn, to an increase of gas, vapour, and liquid penetration into the structure of the mix. It is noted that especially strong this penetration is in the cover zone. So, one can see that additional water provides the potential for structural mix to decrease its durability. One more disadvantage of adding water to the concrete mix is its reinforcement corrosion and cracking. Additional corrosion and cracking provide new ways for gas, vapour, and liquids to penetrate into the cover zone. So, is additional water concrete's friend or enemy?
TEXT 5. Cement and concrete

          1. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски выделенными словами.

blocks bricks concrete (x2) ingredient materials mixture walls
The most common type of cement is Portland cement, which is the basic (1)__ of concrete and mortar. It is made of Portland cement clinker (calcium silicates, aluminium and other compounds) and other minor constituents. Portland cement clinker is produced by heating a mixture of raw (2)___ up to 1450° C in a kiln. There are three production stages:

• preparation of the raw mixture,

• production of the clinker,

• preparation of the (3) ___ _

Limestone is the main raw material for the production of clinker, followed by sand, shale, iron ore, bauxite, fly ash and slag. About 2% gypsum is also added and then the (4)___ is pulverised. The resulting powder will react when water is added. Portland cement is commonly used to produce (5)___ , which is made of gravel, sand, cement and water. Blocks of cinder concrete, ordinary concrete and hollow tile are known as Concrete Masonry Units (CMU). They are larger than ordinary (6)___ and used for applications where appearance is not very important, such as in factory walls, garages and industrial buildings. One of the advantages of concrete (7)___ is that they can be reinforced, grouting the voids, inserting rebar or using grout, so that they are stronger than typical masonry (8)____

        1. Прочитайте текст снова и выберете правильное слово.

1. Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete/aluminium.

2. The main raw material for the production of clinker is brick/limestone.

3. Portland cement is used to produce gravel/concrete.

4. Concrete Masonry Units are larger than ordinary bricks/stones.

5. Concrete blocks can be reinforced/industrial.

6. Reinforced concrete blocks are stronger than masonry industries/walls.

        1. Найдите соответствующие определение.

1 masonry

2 brick

3 concrete

4 mortar

5 limestone

  1. a mixture of cement, sand, small stones and water

  2. brick work

  3. white rock often used for making cement

  4. a mixture of sand, water and cement or lime

  5. a reddish-brown rectangular block used to build walls and houses

        1. Прочитайте тест снова и напишете резюме, используя клише.

The text is about …

At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …

Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …

After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}

At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact) that…

        1. Создайте 4 группы и выберете один из строительных материалов (stone, timber, brick, cement and concrete). Опишите своими словами выбранный строительный материал (проектная работа).

        1. Используя информацию из текстов разделов III, IV, V, VI заполните таблицу.




cement and concrete



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