Учебное пособие для студентов направления 08. 03. 01 «Строительство», профиль «Промышленное и гражданское строительство»


VII. STEEL, METALS, GLASS AND PLASTIC



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VII. STEEL, METALS, GLASS AND PLASTIC



TEXT 1. Steel

          1. Прочитайте текст и вставьте пропущенные сова в предложениях.

Steel is resistant to corrosion, rusting and general deterioration. It can be used both for exterior as well as internal infrastructure. Compared to conventional concrete buildings, steel buildings offer a longer lifetime and they cause less harm to the environment thanks to the resistance and durability. Because steel buildings are usually pre-fabricated or made in sections and parts that are assembled on the construction site, they are cheaper than conventional buildings.

The quantity of carbon contained in steel determines whether the alloy is hard or soft. Nowadays steel buildings are often appreciated for their design. In fact, the flexibility of this material allows different forms and shapes. More than any other building material, steel has a high strength-to-weight ratio. This means that it is easy and cheap to span large distances elegantly eliminating columns. Thanks to this, it is easier to subdivide and customise office- and warehouse space.


  1. Steel can be used both for the exterior and the interior of _____a building.

  2. Steel is ________ to corrosion, rusting and general deterioration.

  3. Steel buildings have a longer compared to conventional concrete buildings.

  4. Steel buildings are usually than buildings.

  5. It is easy and cheap to span large elegantly.

  6. By eliminating , it is easier to subdivide and customise office and warehouse space.




          1. Прочитайте текст снова и подберите соответствующее определение к словам.




rusting

flexibility

alloy

deterioration



lifetime

customise



a a composite metal made by mixing other metals together

b the period of time for which a building is expected to last

c when a metal becomes reddish brown because of air and water

d to change the appearance or characteristics of something according to someone's taste or needs

e becoming worse in quality or condition

f being bent easily without breaking







          1. Прочитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие выражения:

The text is about …

At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …

Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …

After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}

At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact) that…


TEXT 2. Glass and metals


            1. Прочитайте текст и подберете соответствующее название к каждому параграфу.

A Advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of metals

B Transparent buildings: problems and possible solutions

C An interesting experiment
1. Glass is a fashionable material in contemporary architecture. Transparent buildings and structures are very popular in contemporary architecture. Structural glass components such as columns and beams are often required, but this material seems structurally unsafe because of its brittleness. For this reason a new construction technique has been developed using:

• very long overlapping glass segments to create glass beams. These are made by bonding the segments adhesively;

• a small stainless steel profile that has been added to the layout of the glass beam to reinforce it.

2.To prove that glass structures can be as safe as reinforced concrete, an experimental transparent pavilion has been designed (with dimensions 9 x 9 x 3.6 m3) that combines a number of innovative ideas. Many different kinds of glass and glass systems have been used. The outermost and the triple-layered insulating glass units have been tempered and sometimes laminated and some glass has also been coated with solar control glass to reflect some of the unwanted sunshine outwards. In other cases glass that can be heated electrically and glass panes free of iron oxide have been used to make the inside light more natural.

3. Painted, stainless, hot dip galvanised and weather resistant steel, as well as alu minium, have also been used for supporting structures. Aluminium has some advantages (it is light, resistant to corrosion and easy to work but also some disadvantages (its thermal expansion and conductivity are high and it has low elastic modulus and fire resistance). Stainless steel also offers some advantages (it has good fire resistance and it is easy to keep) but its high price is a major disadvantage. Both hot dip galvanised and painted steel are not as expensive, but they are difficult to work on site and are not resistant to corrosion.


            1. Почитайте текст сова и определите соответствие и несоответствие содержанию текста (T) или (F).

1. Glass is very popular in contemporary architecture.

2. There is no way to create a glass structure that is as safe as reinforced concrete.

3. A transparent pavilion has been recently designed as an experiment that uses some innovative ideas.

4. There is only one type of glass in this pavilion.

5. Glass has also been used for supporting structures.

6. Hot dip galvanised steel is not resistant to corrosion.


3. Прочитайте текст снова и подберите соответствующее определение к словам.


1 outermost

2 stainless steel

3 galvanised

4 brittleness

5 pane


a a metal made from steel that does not rust

b fragility

c external

d flat sheet of glass

e coated with zinc to protect it from rust





          1. Прочитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие выражения:

The text is about …

At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …

Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …

After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}

At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact) that…


TEXT 3. Plastic


            1. Прочитайте текст и выберете правильный вариант.

Plastic products offer a number of ecological advantages: they save resources, have a low maintenance cost and can be recycled. Furthermore they contribute to save energy (plastic foams are used for thermal insulation in many applications). Plastic is also useful for noise protection and insulation. The main fields of application of these materials are pipes, insulation, wall covering, flooring (both in houses and in public areas) and, quite recently, window frames (made of PVC). PVC stands for Polyvinyl Chloride and it is the plastic which has seen the most rapid growth in recent times in industry. PVC is often used in piping systems because of its good chemical resistance to corrosive fluids. PVC pipes are used for a great number of applications: to drain waste, for natural gas distribution, for electrical and communications wiring, for municipal water. As it is the newest primary construction material and entirely man-made, plastic is extremely versatile. Improvements made through research have increased its acceptance among designers, contractors and building code officials.


1 Plastic products save ...

A industry. B materials. C resources.

2 Plastic insulation is also useful for ... protection.

A recycled B resources C noise

3 PVC is the plastic whose use has grown more ...

A recently. B slowly. C primary.

4 The ... fields of application of these materials are in flooring.

A alternative B main C useful

5 PVC has good ... resistance to corrosive fluids.

A physical B public C chemical

6 PVC pipes are used for ... gas distribution.

A natural B chemical C piping




            1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

  1. What are the advantages offered by plastic products?

  2. How can plastic save energy?

  3. What is plastic insulation useful for?

  4. What are the main fields of application of plastic?

  5. What does PVC stand for?

  6. What are PVC pipes used for?




          1. Прочитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие выражения:

The text is about …

At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …

Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …

After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}

At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact) that…




          1. Напишите список достоинства и недостатки каждого материала.







Steel and Metals


Glass

Plastic

advantages










disadvantages











TEXT 5. Sustainable materials


            1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

Due to the rise in global population and prosperity over the last few decades, one of the consequences of this phenomenon has been the increase in volume and variety of the materials used (such as raw materials, food, manufactured products and waste) with a consequent increase in the transport distances. This has created a series of negative effects on the environment, especially different kinds of pollution, leading to an ecological emergency and growing preoccupation about health. This is why the aim of eco-design is to create buildings with low ecological impact, where people can live in a comfortable, healthy way. This is possible by using building materials that are traditionally considered eco-friendly and-sustainable: timber from forests that have been certified; quickly renewable plant materials (such as straw or bamboo); some typical traditional materials such as brick, stone, clay and cork; non-toxic, renewable and recyclable materials (natural paints, waxes and varnishes). Waste materials can also be reused as a resource for construction purposes.




  1. What has happened to population and wealth in the last few decades?

  2. What has been one of the results of this?

  3. What is the aim of eco-design?

  4. Can you name some eco-friendly and sustainable materials you have found in the text?




            1. Ответьте на вопросы (работа в парах):

What is your opinion of modern building materials? Which would you use if you could build your own house? Tell your partner about it using the information given in this unit.


VIII. AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE



              1. Назовите заполнители бетона (мозговой штурм).


AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE


2. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на ключевые слова, перевод которых вы найдете в словаре после текста.
AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE

By the simple definition from the dictionary “aggregates are the materials, such as sand and small stones, that are mixed with cement to form concrete”. In other words aggregates can be defined as a mass of practically inert mineral materials, which, when surrounded and bonded together by an active binder, form a rock. This rock is denoted by the general term concrete.

Aggregates have three principal functions in the concrete: they provide a relatively cheap filler for the concreting material, or binder; they provide a mass of particles which are suitable for resisting the action of applied loads, of abrasion, of percolation of moisture through the mass, and of climate factors; they reduce volume changes resulting from the action of the setting and hardening of the concrete mass.

All aggregates, both natural and artificial, which have sufficient strength and resistance to weathering, and which do not contain harmful impurities may be used for making concrete. As aggregates such as natural materials as sand. Pebbles, broken stone, broken brick, gravel, slag, cinder, pumice and others can be used.



Sand is the chief material used as a fine aggregate. It is required in mortar or concrete for economy and to prevent the excessive cracking. Mortar made without sand would be expensive.

The word “sand” is applied to any finely divided material, which will not injuriously affect the cement or lime and which is not subject to disintegration or decay. Sand is almost the only material which is sufficiently cheap and which can fulfill these requirements.

A mixture of coarse and fine grains is very satisfactory, as it makes a denser and stronger concrete with a less amount of cement than when only fine-grained sand is used.

The following sands are used for mortars: quarry sand, river sand and sea sand.




СЛОВА И ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ

AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE”



  1. aggregate

  2. bond

  3. binder

  4. rock

  5. abrasion

  6. result from

  7. reduce

  8. setting




  1. hardening




  1. contain

  2. pebbles

  3. broken stone=broken brick

  4. cinder

  5. pumice

apply (applied)

  1. injurious

  2. affect

  3. subject

  4. decay

  5. fulfill

  6. coarse

  7. grains

  8. quarry

  1. Заполнитель

  2. связывать, соединять, сцеплять

  3. вяжущее

  4. камень, булыжник; горная порода

  5. стирание, стирание, трение

  6. происходить, вытекать

  7. уменьшать

  8. затвердевание,застывание; схватывание (цемента);

  9. затвердение, застывание (цемента, бетона); цементирование

  10. содержать, вмещать

  11. булыжник, мелкий камень, щебень

  12. щебень

  13. окалина, шлак, угольный мусор

  14. пемза

  15. применять, прикладывать

вредный, приносящий вред

  1. влиять

  2. подвергаться

  3. гнить, гниение, разложение

  4. выполнять

  5. крупный

  6. зерна

22.открытая разработка, карьер

3.Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах).


  1. cheap filler

  2. concreting material




  1. applied load

  2. percolation of moisture

  3. volume change

  4. sufficient strength

  5. resistance to weathering

  6. harmful impurities

  7. fine aggregate

  8. excessive cracking

  9. finely divided material

  10. subject to disintegration

  11. fine-grained sand




  1. мелкий заполнитель

  2. вредные вещества (включения, нечистоты)

  3. стойкость к выветриванию

  4. чрезмерное образование трещин

  5. мелкозернистый песок

  6. бетонная смесь

  7. достаточная прочность

  8. дешевый заполнитель

  9. материал тонкого помола (очень мелкий)

  10. изменение объема

  11. просачивание влаги

  12. приложенная нагрузка

  13. подвергаться разрушению

4.Прочитайте и закончите предложения о заполнителях в соответствии с содержанием текста. Предложения переведите (работа в парах).


  1. Aggregates are the materials




  1. They provide a cheap filler

  2. They can resist

  3. They reduce




  1. All aggregates (natural and artificial)




  1. Sand is the chief material




  1. Sand is not subjected to

  2. A mixture of coarse and fine grains is very satisfactory

a)as it makes a denser and stronger concrete.

b)to disintegration and decay

c)for the concreting material

d)have sufficient strength and resistance to weathering

e)volume changes in the process of concrete setting and hardening.

f)such as sand and small stones, that are mixed with cement to form concrete.

g)used as a fine aggregate

h)the action of the applied loads, of abrasion, and of climate factors




TEXTS FOR TEST
1. Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст на русский язык, пользуясь словами и выражениями из текстов, прочитанных дома.
TEXT 1. MODERN BUILDING MATERIALS

Some of the most important building materials are: timber, brick, stone concrete, metal, plastics and glass.



Timber is provided by different kinds of trees. Timbers used for building purposes are divided into two groups called softwoods and hardwoods. Timber is at present not so much used in building construction, as in railway engineering, in mining and in the chemical industries where it provides a number of valuable materials.

However, timber is still employed as a building material in the form of boards. For interior of buildings plywood and veneer serve a number of purposes.



A brick is best described as a “building unit”. It may be made of clay by moulding and baking in kilns, of concrete, of mortar or of a composition of sawdust and other materials. In shape it is a rectangular solid and its weight is from 6,5 to 9 lb.

There exists variety of bricks for different purposes: ordinary, hollow or porous, lightweight, multicolor bricks for decorative purposes, etc. Bricks are usually laid in place with the help of mortar.

The shape and convenient size of brick enables a man to grip it with an easy confidence and, because of this brick building has been popular for many hundred years. The hand of the average man is large enough to take a brick and he is able to handle more than 500 bricks in an eight-hour working day.

Sometimes natural stones such as marble, granite, basalt, limestone and sandstone are used for the construction of dams and foundations. Marble, granite and sandstone are widely used for decorative purposes as well, especially with the public buildings.



Metals: Aluminum, principally in the form of various alloys, is highly valued for its durability and especially for its light weight, while brass id frequently used for decorative purposes in facing.

Steel finds its use in corrugated sheets for roofing, for girders, frames, etc. Various shapes are employed in construction.

Plastics are artificial materials used in construction work for a vast number of purposes. Nowadays plastics, which are artificial materials, can be applied to almost every branch of building, from the laying of foundation to the final coat of paint. Synthetic resins are the main raw material for plastics. Plastics have some good advantages as they are lighter than metals, not subject to corrosion and they can be easier machined. Besides, they are inflammable, they can take any colour and pattern, and they are good electrical insulators. More over, they possess a high resistance to chemical action.

A lot of decorative plastics, now available, have brought about a revolution in interior and exterior design. But plastics are used now not only for decoration. These materials are sufficiently rigid to stand on their own without any support. They can be worked with ordinary builder’s tools.



Laminate is a strong material manufactured from many layers of paper or textile impregnated with thermosetting resins. This sandwich is then pressed and subjected to heat. Laminate has been developed for both inside and outside use. It resists severe weather conditions for more than ten years without serious deformation. As a structural material it is recommended for exterior work. Being used for surfacing, laminate gives the tough surface.

Foamed glass is a high –porosity heat insulating material, available in block made of fine-ground glass and a frothing agent.

Foamed glass is widely used in prefabricated house building, to ensure heat insulation of exterior wall panels, and in industrial construction.

Foamed glass has a high mechanical strength, is distinguished by moisture, vapour and gas impermeability. It is non-inflammable, offers resistance to frost, possesses a high sound absorption, and it is easily sewn and nailed.


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